Saturday, December 4, 2021

Russian Federation

EuropeRussian Federation

The Russian Federation, often referred to as Russia, is a federal state located in Eurasia. Russia is the world’s biggest nation, encompassing more than one-eighth of the planet’s populated land area at 17,075,200 square kilometers (6,592,800 square miles), and the tenth most populous, with over 146.6 million inhabitants as of March 2016. The western European portion of the nation is much more populous and urbanized than the eastern part; about 77 percent of the population lives in western Europe. Moscow, Russia’s capital, is one of the world’s biggest cities; other significant metropolitan areas include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Samara.

Russia covers eleven time zones and has a diverse variety of ecosystems and landforms. Russia has land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland (all of which are part of the Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea, in order of northwest to southeast. It is connected to Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and to the United States of America via the Bering Strait.

The nation’s history started with the East Slavs, who established themselves as a distinct ethnic group in Europe between the third and eighth centuries AD. The medieval kingdom of Rusa was founded and controlled by a Varangian military elite and their successors in the ninth century. It accepted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire in 988, thus initiating the fusion of Byzantine and Slavic civilizations that would characterize Russian culture for the following century. The Rus’ eventually dissolved into a variety of smaller kingdoms; in the 13th century, the majority of the Rus’ territories were conquered by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde. The Grand Duchy of Moscow progressively reunified the neighboring Russian kingdoms, gained independence from the Golden Horde, and eventually came to dominate Kievan Rus’ cultural and political heritage. By the 18th century, the country had grown significantly via conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third biggest empire in history, spanning from Poland to Alaska.

Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics’ biggest and most powerful component, the world’s first constitutional socialist state. The Soviet Union was instrumental in Allied victory in World War II and developed as a recognized superpower and adversary of the United States throughout the Cold War. The Soviet period produced some of the twentieth century’s most important technical accomplishments, including the world’s first human-made satellite and the first human spaceflight. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world’s second biggest economy, the world’s largest standing military, and the world’s largest arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Following the Soviet Union’s dissolution in 1991, fourteen independent republics emerged; the Russian SFSR, as the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic, reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the Soviet Union’s sole surviving legal personality and sole successor state. It is a federal semi-presidential republic ruled by a federal president.

In 2015, Russia’s economy was ranked twelfth in terms of nominal GDP and sixth in terms of purchasing power parity. Russia’s vast mineral and energy resources are the world’s biggest, making it one of the world’s top producers of oil and natural gas. The nation is one of five acknowledged nuclear weapons powers and has the world’s biggest arsenal of conventional weapons. Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO).

Russia | Introduction

The Russian Federation, also known as Russia, is a federal state in Eurasia. With an area of 17,075,200 km2, Russia is the biggest country in the world, with over 1/8 of the world's land area, and the 9th most populated, with more than 146.6 million. The western portion of...

How To Travel To Russia

By plane Moscow and St Petersburg are served by direct flights from most European capitals, and Moscow also has direct flights from many cities in East Asia, South Asia, Africa, the Middle East and North America. Non-stop flights from the USA to Russia are offered by Singapore (Houston to Moscow,...

How To Travel Around Russia

By train Due to the vastness of the country and poor road safety, the best way to move around the country quickly is by train. Russia has an extensive railway network connecting almost all cities and towns. For intercity travel, the train is usually the most comfortable solution for journeys...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Russia

Visa Citizens of the following countries do not need a visa: Citizens of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (90 days, Belarus unlimited) Argentina (approved for 90 days) Bosnia and Herzegovina (30 days) Brazil (90 days) Chile (90 days) Colombia (90 days) Cuba (30 days) Ecuador (90 days) Fiji (90 days) Guatemala (90 days) French Guiana (90 days) Honduras (90 days) Hong Kong...

Destinations in Russia

Regions in Russia Central Russia (Moscow, Ivanovo Oblast, Kaluga Oblast, Kostroma Oblast, Moscow Oblast, Ryazan Oblast, Smolensk Oblast, Tver Oblast, Tula Oblast, Vladimir Oblast, Yaroslavl Oblast).The richest side of the country, dominated by spectacular architecture and historic buildings. It is the country's gateway to Europe and is home to the...

Weather & Climate in Russia

The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many regions from the sea lead to the predominance of a humid continental climate, which prevails in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme south-east. The mountains in the south hinder the influx of warm...

Accommodation & Hotels in Russia

In most cities, quality hotels are really rare: most were built in Soviet times several decades ago and have been recently renovated in their facilities, but rarely in their service and attitude. Even for a local, it is quite difficult to find a good hotel without the recommendation of...

Things To See in Russia

Russia is huge, and the attractions for visitors are exceptionally long, although many of them are in hard-to-reach areas of the most remote countries on earth. The most famous sights are in and around the country's capitals, Moscow and St Petersburg. Historical attractions Russia's history is the first reason tourists come...

Things To Do in Russia

Music - Russia has a long musical tradition and is known for its composers and performers. There is no doubt: the bigger the city, the more orchestral performances there are. Classical music is performed in various theatres, where national and guest concerts are planned in the coming weeks. In...

Food & Drinks in Russia

Food in Russia The foundations of Russian cuisine were laid by the peasant diet in an often harsh climate, with a combination of fish, poultry, game, mushrooms, berries and honey. The cultivation of rye, wheat, buckwheat, barley and millet provided the ingredients for an abundance of breads, pancakes, muesli, kvass,...

Money & Shopping in Russia

Money in Russia Throughout its history, Russia has had different versions of the rouble (рубль), which is divided into 100 kopecks (копеек). The latest manifestation, the rouble (replacing the rouble), was introduced in 1998 (although all banknotes and the first coin issues bear the date 1997). All currencies before 1998...

Festivals & Holidays in Russia

Official holidays New Year holidays In addition to New Year's Day (Новый год Novy god), 1 January, 2 January and 5 January are also public holidays, called New Year's Day (Новогодние каникулы Novogodniye kanikuly). This holiday covers 6 and 8 January, with 7 January declared a public holiday by law. Until...

Language & Phrasebook in Russia

Russian is the main language in Russia. This language belongs to the East Slavic language family and is closely related to Ukrainian and Belarusian. Other Slavic languages such as Bulgarian, Croatian and Czech are not mutually intelligible, but still bear a slight resemblance. Russian is considered one of the...

Internet & Communications in Russia

Telephones The country code for Russia (and Kazakhstan as a former member of the Soviet Union) is 7. Russian telephone numbers have a three-, four- or five-digit area code (depending on the province) followed by an individual number with 7, 6 or 5 digits respectively, which always gives a total of...

Traditions & Customs in Russia

Russians are reserved and well-mannered people. Gestures In Russia, smiling is traditionally reserved for friends, and smiling at a stranger can make them feel uncomfortable. If you smile at a Russian in the street, there is a good chance that they will not react in the same way. An automatic American...

Culture Of Russia

Folk culture and cuisine There are more than 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia. The country's great cultural diversity ranges from the ethnic Russians with their Slavic Orthodox traditions to the Tatars and Bashkirs with their Turkic Muslim culture to the nomadic Buddhist Buryats and Kalmyks, the...

History Of Russia

An imperial power Russian identity dates back to the Middle Ages, with the first state known as Kievan Rus and its religion rooted in Byzantine Christianity (i.e. Greek Orthodox as opposed to Latin Catholic) adopted in Constantinople. However, it was not considered part of ordinary Europe until the reign of...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Russia

Stay safe in Russia Largely as a result of the transition from state socialism to market capitalism, Russia experienced an increase in criminal activity in the 1990s. As those who controlled capital through the state had to transform their business activities towards the rationality of free enterprise, profits and fraud...

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