Irkutsk is a city in Russia and the administrative headquarters of Irkutsk Oblast. It is one of the major cities in Siberia.
Irkutsk was established in 1661 as a trade post for gold and furs. It was linked to Europe via a route built around 1760.
Following the Decemberist Insurrection of 1825, many Russian artists, officers, and aristocrats were exiled to Siberia for their role in the revolt against Tsar Nicholas I, and by the late 1800s, 30 percent of the city’s population was exiled. Irkutsk became a significant center of intellectual and social life for these exiles, and they are responsible for much of the city’s cultural history. Many of their wooden cottages, ornately decorated with hand-carved embellishments, still stand in sharp contrast to the adjacent Soviet apartment structures. Because of its broad avenues and elaborate, western architecture, the city was dubbed “Paris of Siberia” about 1900, although visitors today will find little similarity to Paris.
During the civil war that erupted in the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917-1922, Irkutsk was the scene of many ferocious, brutal fights between the “Whites” and the “Reds” (aka Bolsheviks). A number of city landmarks from the period still stand. Kolchak, the once-feared leader of the greatest detachment of anti-Bolshevik soldiers, was executed in Irkutsk in 1920, thereby putting an end to the anti-Bolshevik struggle.
Irkutsk is now the sixth biggest city in Siberia, with a population of around 590,000 people. Because of its closeness to Lake Baikal, it is home to multiple universities and a significant division of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Irkutsk – Info Card
|TIME ZONE :||IRKT (UTC+08:00)|
|AREA :||277 km2 (107 sq mi)|
|COORDINATES :||52°17′N 104°17′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 46,2%|
• Female: 53,8%
|AREA CODE :||3952|
|POSTAL CODE :||664xxx|
|DIALING CODE :||+7 3952|
Climate of Irkutsk
Climate classification Dwc by Köppen used to classify Irkutsk’s native climate as borderline subarctic. A humid continental climate (Köppen classification Dwb) has prevailed since the year 2000. From the end of April in the 1930s through the end of March in the 1980s, the snow cover vanished sooner. Over the same era, the discontinuous permafrost depth fell from 200 m to 100 m
The temperature in Irkutsk varies dramatically from season to season. Temperatures may fluctuate greatly throughout the year. As a result, temperatures in the Irkutsk area are less severe than those in other parts of Siberia. Temperatures in Irkutsk reach a high of +37.2 °C (99.0 °F) in July, the hottest month of the year, with an average temperature of +18 °C (64 °F).
As of this writing, January’s average temperature is 18 °C (0°F), while its record low was 49.7 °C (0°F). This is the coldest month of the year. The amount of precipitation varies greatly throughout the year, with the wettest month being July, with an average of 113 millimeters of precipitation (4.4 in). February is the driest month of the year, with an average rainfall of only 7.6 millimeters (0.30 in). During the Siberian winter, almost all precipitation falls in the form of flurrying, low-moisture snow.
Geography of Irkutsk
At an elevation of 72 kilometers (45 miles) below its outflow from Lake Baikal, on the bank of the Angara River, the city’s tributary, is the suburb of Glaskovsk. In addition to the Irkutsk Hydroelectric Dam, the river is spanned by three further bridges downstream.
The Irkut River, which bears the town’s name, enters the Angara River just in front of the city. The Ida (or Ushakovka) River separates the city’s core from various attractions, including the monastery, the fort, and the harbor, as well as its suburbs. As the Angara River flows through Irkutsk, the Angara River’s “left bank” and “right bank” are often referred to.
Irkutsk is located in a region of Eastern Siberia known for its undulating hills and dense taiga.
Over a million people are expected to live in a new metropolis that includes Irkutsk, the nearby industrial town of Shelekhov, and the city of Angarsk.
Economy of Irkutsk
The 662.4 MW Irkutsk Hydroelectric Power Plant was the region’s first cascade hydroelectric power station. The dam’s construction began in 1950 and was completed in 1958.
The major enterprise in Irkutsk is Irkut, the Irkutsk Aviation Industrial Association, which was founded in 1932 in the Soviet Union’s Transbaykal region. It is best known for producing the Su-30 series of interceptor/ground-attack aircraft. The Russian government intends to combine Irkut with Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Sukhoi, Tupolev, and Yakovlev to form United Aircraft Building Corporation.
There is also the Rusal Company’s Irkutsk Aluminium Smelter.