Alexandria is Egypt’s second biggest city and a key commercial hub, stretching 32 kilometers (20 miles) along the Mediterranean Sea coast in the country’s north central region. It is very susceptible to rising sea levels due to its low height in the Nile delta. Alexandria is Egypt’s busiest seaport, handling around 80% of the country’s imports and exports. Because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez, it is a major industrial hub. Alexandria is a popular tourist attraction as well.
Alexander the Great established Alexandria around a minor Ancient Egyptian settlement circa 331 BC. It grew to be an important hub of Hellenistic civilisation, and it served as the capital of Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Egypt for about 1000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was established at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).
Hellenistic The Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Alexandria’s Great Library (the greatest in the ancient world; now replaced by a contemporary one), and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages, are among the city’s most famous attractions. After Rome, Alexandria was the second most powerful city in the ancient world. The ongoing marine archaeology in Alexandria’s port, which started in 1994, is uncovering information about Alexandria both before Alexander’s arrival and throughout the Ptolemaic dynasty, when a city called Rhacotis existed there.
Alexandria became a significant hub of international shipping and one of the world’s most important commercial capitals in the late 18th century, owing to the easy overland link between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, as well as the profitable Egyptian cotton trade.
Alexandria – Info Card
|FOUNDED :||331 BC|
|TIME ZONE :||EST (UTC+2) Summer: (UTC+3)|
|LANGUAGE :||Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes|
|RELIGION :||Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%|
|AREA :||2,679 km2 (1,034 sq mi)|
|COORDINATES :||31°12′N 29°55′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 50.22%|
• Female: 49.78%
|ETHNIC :||Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4%|
|AREA CODE :|
|POSTAL CODE :||21500|
|DIALING CODE :||(+20) 3|
|WEBSITE :||official website|
Tourism in Alexandria
Due to its public and private beaches, rich history, and museums, particularly the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, based on restoring the ancientLibrary of Alexandria, Alexandria is a popular summer resort and tourist destination.
Every year, the city hosts the Cross Egypt Challenge, which is one of the city’s most popular tourist attractions. Cross Egypt Challenge, which began in 2011, is an international cross-country motorcycle and scooter rally that takes place on Egypt’s most demanding routes and highways. Alexandria is the annual starting point for the Cross Egypt Challenge, and a large celebration is held the night before the rally begins, when all of the foreign participants have arrived in the city.
Climate of Alexandria
Alexandria has a hot desert climate that approaches semi-aridity (BSh), although unlike the rest of Egypt’s northern coast, the city is protected from the desert hinterland by the prevailing north breeze that blows over the Mediterranean.
The wettest locations in Egypt are Rafah and Alexandria; the other wettest places are Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar, and Mersa Matruh. The Mediterranean Sea influences the city’s climate, lowering temperatures and creating variably wet winters and fairly hot summers that may be highly humid at times.
The coldest months are January and February, with daily maximum temperatures ranging from 12 to 18 °C (54 to 64 °F) and minimum temperatures as low as 5 °C (41 °F).
During the colder months, Alexandria is subjected to intense storms, rain, and sometimes sleet and hail; these phenomena, along with an inadequate drainage system, have resulted in floods throughout the city. With an average daily maximum temperature of 30 °C (86 °F), July and August are the warmest and driest months of the year. The average yearly rainfall is roughly 200 mm (7.9 in), however it has reached 417 mm on rare occasions (16.4 in).