Slovenia, formally the Republic of Slovenia, is a nation state situated in southern Central Europe at the crossroads of major European cultural and commercial routes. It is bounded on the west by Italy, on the north by Austria, on the northeast by Hungary, on the south and southeast by Croatia, and on the southwest by the Adriatic Sea. It has a land area of 20,273 square kilometers (7,827 square miles) and a population of 2.06 million people. It is a parliamentary republic and a UN, European Union, and NATO member. Ljubljana is the capital and biggest city.
The region is mostly mountainous, with a predominantly continental climate, save for the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and the northwestern part, which has an Alpine climate.
Additionally, Slovenia is the meeting point between the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain. The nation, which is rich in biological variety, is also one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a thick river network, an extensive aquifer system, and many karst subterranean watercourses. Forest covers more than half of the area. Slovenia’s human habitation is scattered and uneven.
Slavic, Germanic, Romance, and Hungarian languages all coexist in this area. Although the population is not homogenous, the Slovene language is spoken by the majority. Slovene is the country’s official language. Slovenia is a mainly secular nation, although Catholicism and Lutheranism have had a major impact on its culture and identity. Slovenia’s economy is modest, open, and export-oriented, and has been heavily affected by global economic circumstances. It has been harmed significantly by the Eurozone crisis, which began in the late 2000s. Services are the primary economic sector, followed by manufacturing and construction.
Slovenia’s present area has been a part of a variety of distinct state forms throughout history, including the Roman Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Habsburg Monarchy. Slovenes first exercised self-determination in October 1918, when they co-founded the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs. They united with the Kingdom of Serbia in December 1918 to become the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (renamed Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929). Slovenia was invaded and annexed by Germany, Italy, and Hungary during World War II, with a sliver of territory given to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. Following that, it was a founding member of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, subsequently renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a communist state that was the only Eastern Bloc nation to never join the Warsaw Pact. Slovenia gained independence from Yugoslavia in June 1991, after the establishment of multi-party representative democracy. It joined NATO and the European Union in 2004; the Eurozone in 2007; and the OECD, a worldwide organization of high-income industrialized nations, in 2010.