Sudan is a nation in northeastern Africa. It is sometimes known as North Sudan and is formally recognized as the Republic of Sudan. It is bounded to the north by Egypt, to the east by the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the south by South Sudan, to the southwest by the Central African Republic, to the west by Chad, and to the northwest by Libya. It is Africa’s third biggest country. The Nile separates Egypt into eastern and western parts. Its primary religion is Islam.
Sudan was home to a number of ancient civilizations, including the Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Mero, and others, the majority of which thrived near the Nile. Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were similar throughout the pre-dynastic era, evolving pharaonic royal systems at the same time about 3300 BC. Because of its closeness to Egypt, Sudan had a role in the larger history of the Near East, since it was Christianized by the 6th century and Islamized by the 15th.
The Old Nubian language is the oldest known Nilo-Saharan language as a result of Christianization (earliest records dating to the 9th century). Sudan was the biggest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan seceded and became an independent republic as a result of an independence vote. Sudan is currently Africa’s third biggest country (after Algeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo), as well as the Arab world’s third largest (after Algeria and Saudi Arabia).
Sudan is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Arab League, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as a WTO observer. Khartoum, the nation’s political, cultural, and commercial center, is its capital. It is a democraticfederal republic with a presidential representative system. Sudan’s politics are governed by the National Assembly, a legislative body. The Sudanese legal system is founded on Islamic principles.