South Sudan, formally the Republic of South Sudan, is an East-Central African landlocked republic that won independence from Sudan in 2011. Juba, the country’s current capital and largest metropolis, is also its largest city. In the future, the capital city will be relocated to Ramciel, which is more centrally placed. South Sudan is bounded to the north by Sudan, to the east by Ethiopia, to the southeast by Kenya, to the south by Uganda, to the southwest by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and to the west by the Central African Republic. It encompasses the enormous Sudd wetland region, produced by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal.
Egypt conquered the lands of current South Sudan and the Republic of Sudan under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, and the areas were afterwards administered as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence was won in 1956. The Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was established in 1972 as a result of the First Sudanese Civil War and lasted until 1983. Soon after, a second Sudanese civil war erupted, which ended with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Later that year, an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was created, restoring southern autonomy.
South Sudan gained independence on July 9, 2011, following a referendum that received 98.83 percent of the vote. It is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. South Sudan ratified the Geneva Conventions on July 2012. South Sudan has experienced internal strife since its independence, and as of 2016, is ranked second on the Fragile States Index (formerly the Failed States Index).