With a population of 8,230,000, Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu Province in the People’s Republic of China and the second biggest city in the east China area. It has long been a significant center of culture, education, science, politics, economics, transportation networks, and tourism, and it constitutionally remains the capital of the Republic of China, which lost the mainland during the civil war.
From the third century AD through 1949, the city played an important role in Chinese history and culture, serving as the capital of successive Chinese dynasties, kingdoms, and republican administrations. Prior to the introduction of pinyin romanization, the city name of Nanjing was spelt Nanking or Nankin. Nanjing had many previous names, and some of them are currently used as district names in the city, such as Jiangning, whose former character Jiang (, River) is the former portion of the name Jiangsu and later character Ning (, simplified version, Peace) is the short name of Nanjing. When referring to the capital of a state, such as the ROC, Jing is used as an abbreviation for Nanjing. Although Nanjing was chosen as the Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty, the name Nanjing was given to the city around a thousand years later, in the Ming dynasty. Nanjing is also known as Jinling or Ginling (, meaning “Gold Mountain”), a name that has been used since the Warring States Period of the Zhou Dynasty.
Nanjing, located in the Yangtze River Delta in the heart of east China, is home to one of the world’s major inland ports. Nanjing is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the administrative framework of the People’s Republic of China, with jurisdictional and economic autonomy comparable to that of a province. Nanjing was placed seventh in the National Statistics Bureau’s study of “Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength,” and second in the Yangtze River Delta’s evaluation of cities with the most sustainable growth potential. It has also received the 2008 Chinese Habitat Scroll of Honour, the Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honour Award, and the National Civilized City designation. Nanjing has several high-quality universities and research centers, with the city placing third in terms of the number of universities included in the 100 National Key Universities, including Nanjing University. The ratio of college students to total population is the highest in the country among metropolitan cities. According to Nature Index, Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese research cities.
Nanjing, one of the nation’s most significant cities for over a thousand years, is acknowledged as one of China’s Four Great Ancient Capitals, and had been the world’s biggest city aggregately for hundreds of years, enjoying peace and prosperity as well as bearing wars and tragedies.
After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, it served as the capital city of Jiangsu province, and it is now the titular capital of the Republic of China, housing several of its key cultural buildings, including the Presidential Palace and the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Purple Mountain are some of Nanjing’s most notable human historical landscapes, mountains, and rivers. Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum, and Art Museum are among the city’s most important cultural institutions.
Nanjing – Info Card
|FOUNDED :||unknown (Yecheng, 495 BC. Jinling City, 333 BC)|
|TIME ZONE :||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|LANGUAGE :||Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)|
|RELIGION :||Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%; note: officially atheist|
|AREA :||6,598 km2 (2,548 sq mi)|
|ELEVATION :||20 m (50 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||32°03′N 118°46′E|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 51.83|
• Female: 48.17
|ETHNIC :||Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%|
|AREA CODE :||25|
|POSTAL CODE :||210000–211300|
|DIALING CODE :||+86 25|
|WEBSITE :||Official Website|
Tourism in Nanjing
Nanjing is one of the most attractive cities on the Chinese mainland, with lush green parks, natural beauty lakes, tiny mountains, historical buildings and monuments, relics, and much more that draw millions of visitors each year.
The city pass may be purchased for 100 at the entrance to any of the city’s major parks, such as the zoo or Yuhuatai Memorial Park, and offers free admission to 21 different destinations. For each pass, you must give a passport picture, and they are good for one calendar year.
- Qin Huai River (秦淮河). The Qin Huai River, a tributary of the Yangtze River, is 110 kilometers (68 miles) long and has a drainage area of 2,631 square kilometers (about 1,016 square miles). The river was originally known as the Huai River, and it is stated that during the reign of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, the river was funneled to the city of Nanjing, after which it was renamed the Qin Huai River. The Qin Huai River is the major river in the Nanjing City region and serves as the city’s “vital blood.” The Qin Huai River is so captivating that it captivates people both at home and abroad. There are several prominent places of interest along the banks of the Qin Huai River, including Confucius Temple, Zhanyuan Garden, Zhonghua Gate, and the scenery along the Taoye Ferry trip to Zhenhuai Bridge, which is just 5 minutes away. Visitors may not only view the beauties along the Qinhuai River while cruising on the painted boats, but they can also experience Nanjing’s traditional culture. Visitors may board boats at several wharfs to enjoy the sights along the river.
- City Wall of Nanjing (城墙). Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (r. 1368-1398) constructed the Nanjing City Wall after establishing the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and Nanjing as the capital 600 years ago. To solidify his dominion and keep attackers at bay, he followed the advice of adviser Zhu Sheng, who advised him to construct a taller city wall, harvest grains, and postpone the coronation. Then he began constructing the city wall. The operation, which required 200,000 employees, took 21 years to complete and moved 7 million cubic meters of soil.
- Confucius Temple (夫子庙). This museum, which was previously an imperial examination testing center for the whole Jiangsu area, is just a portion of the once-massive original structures. The remainder of the property is a large, labyrinthine market; a popular tourist destination in Nanjing and a great spot to get your haggling fix. Take a photo with the Confucius sculpture and then have some tea in one of the canal’s gondolas. On the city’s southern outskirts, near Zhonghua Gate and the Taiping Museum.
- The Gate of China (Zhonghuamen) (中华门), 8 Jiefeng Gate, Zhonghuanan Lu (Take subway line 1 to Zhonghuamen station and get out at exit #2, cross the highway and turn right, keep walking till you get to Yuhua lu, turn left and head straight to the gate), 12358. The southern gate of Nanjing’s city wall; this gigantic gate is one of the finest surviving elements of Nanjing’s city wall, as well as one of the outstanding examples of early Ming defensive construction still standing anywhere. The wooden castle on top was destroyed by fire, but the massive brick substructure (each complete with the mason’s name and home province by command of the emperor) survives. An archery range and vegetable gardens are located in two courtyards. The main gate contains three massive depots inside which you may discover various scale models and exhibitions about the barrier, long empty of food. An air raid siren used during the Japanese invasion on the city may be found in one of the depots. It costs $50 to enter.
- Ruins of the Ming Dynasty Imperial Palace (明故宫遗址), ZhongshanDong Lu(Directly above Minggugong subway station on line 2). The palace was completed in 1366 by the first Ming Emperor and initially spanned 2.5 kilometers. It was entirely demolished during the Qing Dynasty, and what survives now is just a shadow of its former self. The little piece of wall containing the gigantic arches of the Meridian Gate, five stone ‘Outer Dragon’ bridges, and an assortment of megaliths, some with carving remnants, may be found in the tree-shaded southern part. The plan was imitated by the Emperor’s grandson when he transferred the capital northwards in 1421, making the location virtually a prototype of Beijing’s Forbidden City. Free.
- Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall (侵华日军南京大屠杀遇难同胞纪念馆), 418 Shuiximen DaJie (Next to YunJinLu Subway station), e-mail:[email protected] 08:30-16:30; Closed Mondays. A monument to the hundreds of thousands of Chinese killed by Japanese forces in Nanjing during WWII. Two partly excavated mass-burial sites exhibit victim remains in situ, supplemented by informative information boards positioned along the route. The elongated locations are punctuated with sculptures, paintings, and other artworks that induce melancholy contemplation, as well as lovingly controlled buildings and tastefully managed gardens. Close to the entrance is a newly opened museum that exhibits a plethora of images, movies, and items to convey the complete tale in an even-handed manner that may easily entertain you for hours. The captions are available in English, Chinese, and Japanese. Entrance lineups might be lengthy, so prepare ahead of time. Free.
- Nanjing Museum (南京博物院), 321 ZhongshanDong Lu (Next to Zhongshan Gate). 830-1700. Poetry, bronzes, and silk objects are intermingled with cultural presentations in eleven exhibition rooms. A jade burial garment and an arched door from the Ming Dynasty Porcelain Pagoda are worth considering. A wonderful spot to spend a muggy or wet day. Free.
- Presidential Palace (总统府), 292 Changjiang Lu (Walk out from Daxinggong (大行宫) metro station, turn into Changjiang Lu, it will be on your left.), 025-84578700. 08:00-18:00 in summer, 08:00-17:00 in winter. Spend a half-day touring previous emperors’ and the Nationalist government’s headquarters. The Palace contains the old offices of numerous prominent government leaders, including Chiang Kai-shek and Sun Yat-sen, as well as Sun Yat-former sen’s apartment. It is one of the few spots in mainland China where the Republic of China flag still flies. Some of the informational boards around the palace are in English. ¥40.
- Taiping Kingdom History Museum (太平天国历史博物馆) (About 400m from Sanshanjie metro station), 025-52238687. 08:00 – 17:00. A modest museum concentrating on the Taiping Rebellion (1843-1868), a little-known period in Chinese history. This was one of the worst battles in recorded history, with some estimates putting the death toll greater than that of World War I, and it was undoubtedly much worse than the American Civil War at the time, despite the Chinese using cruder weaponry. It was a watershed event in China’s relationship with the West, modernity, and its own imperial past. It was a religious movement in part because the leader claimed to be God’s second son, Jesus’ younger brother. Nanjing was the capital of a quasi-Christian, peasant-led uprising that overran a territory larger than Texas. It threatened both the foreign colonies in Shanghai and the Qing government in Beijing at various occasions, but neither was taken. Documents related to Taiping history and the grinding elimination of their movement by ambitious Qing generals and their European allies, culminating in the siege of Nanjing, are on display. The lovely Zhanyuan Gardens are just next door.
- Jiangsu Province Kunqu Theatre. This well-known theatrical group in Nanjing will offer you the opportunity to see Kunqu Opera, a classic Chinese art form, firsthand. The speech will be sung in ancient Chinese, but there will be LED subtitling in English and current Chinese characters.
- Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (南京长江大桥). This 6-kilometer-long bridge across the Yangtze River has sculptures that are masterpieces of Chinese socialist art, with laborers and farmers carrying tools, soldiers carrying weapons, and all of them clutching books, most likely quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (better known as The Little Red Book). The bridge was erected after Soviet advisers departed China during the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s, making it the first major project completed wholly by Chinese workers with no outside assistance. On the opposite side, a new town is being built, which may feature a direct subway link in the future.
- Jiming Temple (鸡鸣寺), No.1 Ji Ming Si Road (Near Xuanwu Lake, there are several bus stops nearby with over 20 buses pass such as no. 3, 11, 20, 31. Also accessible by Metro Line 3 at Jimingsi Station.), 025-57715595. Jiming Temple is the most popular temple in Nanjing, and it is conveniently positioned in the city center. Tickets are ten dollars, and each ticket comes with three complimentary sticks of incense. During popular seasons, prices may escalate (e.g., Spring Festival).
- Meihuashan (formerly known as Wu Wangfen, but after Wang Jingwei was buried here it got renamed to Meihuashan). The Ming Tomb, Plum Blossom Hill, PlumValley Arts BUILDING Red, and Purple Cloud Lake are all included in the $70 region ticket.
- Nanjing Yuejiang Lou (南京阅江楼).
- Zifeng Tower (紫峰大厦) (Gulou metro station), 025-83280777. The tallest (450-metre, 89-story) building in the city and the seventh tallest building in the world. Hosts an expensive restaurant and a bar at 78th floor. Also there is a public observatory at the 72nd floor. Observatory entrance ¥10000.
Climate of Nanjing
Nanjing has a humid subtropical climate influenced by the East Asian monsoon. The four seasons are distinct, with moist conditions present throughout the year, especially hot and humid summers, chilly, damp winters, and decent lengths of spring and fall in between. Nanjing, along with Chongqing and Wuhan, is known as one of the “Three Furnacelike Cities” along the Yangtze River due to its consistently high summer temperatures.
However, the plum blossom blooming season, which lasts from mid-June to the end of July, is when the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally “plum rain”) begins, and the city endures a period of moderate rain as well as dampness. Typhoons are infrequent, however they are conceivable in the late summer and early fall. The yearly mean temperature is around 15.91 °C (60.6 °F), with monthly 24-hour average temperatures ranging from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Since 1951, extreme temperatures have varied from 14.0 °C (7 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 22 August 1959. Precipitation falls on average 115 days per year, with an annual rainfall of 1,090 mm (43 in). The city gets 1,926 hours of bright sunlight per year, with monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37% in March to 52% in August.
Geography of Nanjing
Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 square kilometers (2,548 square miles), is located in the center of the drainage basin of the lower parts of the Yangtze River, as well as in the Yangtze River Delta, one of China’s main economic zones. The Yangtze River runs through Nanjing City’s west and then north sides, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the city’s north, east, and south sides. The city is located 300 kilometers (190 miles) west of Shanghai, 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) south of Beijing, and 1,400 kilometers (870 miles) east of Chongqing. The downstream Yangtze River runs from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to the East Sea. The drainage basins of the downstream Yangtze are the Huai River basin to the north and the Zhe River basin to the south, and they are linked by the Grand Canal east to Nanjing. The area surrounding Nanjing is known as the Hsiajiang (Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai emphasizing the northern portion and Jiangzhe emphasizing the southern half. Dongnan ( South East, Southeast) and Jiangnan (River South, south of Yangtze) are other names for the region.
Nanjing is bordered to the northeast by Yangzhou, which is one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze, to the east by Zhenjiang, which is one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze, and to the southeast by Changzhou. Anhui province borders Nanjing to the west, where it shares five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou to the northwest, Wuhu, Chaohu, and Maanshan to the west, and Xuancheng to the southwest.
Nanjing is located at the confluence of the Yangtze River, an east-west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a south-north land transport artery, hence the nickname “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north.” Furthermore, the west portion of the Ningzhen range lies in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls in the east of the city, and the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouchs in the west, hence the names “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching.” In the “Constructive Scheme for Our Country,” Mr. Sun Yet-sen praised Nanjing, saying, “The situation of Nanjing is magnificent since mountains, lakes, and plains are all incorporated in it.” It’s difficult to locate another city like this.”
Economy of Nanjing
Because of its favorable geographical position and accessible transportation, Nanjing has been an industrial hub for textiles and minting since the Three Kingdoms era. During the Ming dynasty, Nanjing’s industry flourished, and the city rose to become one of the most opulent in China and the globe. It was the busiest commercial city in East Asia and led in textiles, minting, printing, shipbuilding, and many other sectors. Textiles thrived, notably during the Qing era; the sector employed over 200 thousand people, and there were approximately 50 thousand satin machines in the city in the 18th and 19th centuries.
When the foundation of the ROC in the first part of the twentieth century, Nanjing steadily transitioned from being a manufacturing center to being a heavy consumption metropolis, owing to the fast increase of its rich people after Nanjing reclaimed China’s political limelight. A slew of massive department shops, such as Zhongyang Shangchang, sprung up, luring merchants from all over China to market their wares in Nanjing. In 1933, the city’s food and entertainment industries earned more money than the industrial and agricultural industries combined. One-third of the city’s workforce was employed in the service sector.
In the 1950s, when the CPC formed the People’s Republic of China, the government invested extensively in the city to create a series of state-owned heavy enterprises as part of the national strategy of fast industrialization, transforming it into an east China heavy industry production hub. Overzealous in its pursuit of a “world-class” industrial metropolis, the government made several terrible blunders during construction, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to dig for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. From the 1960s through the 1980s, there were Five Pillar Industries: electronics, automobiles, petrochemicals, iron and steel, and power, all of which had large state-owned enterprises. Following the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, and thus were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization, resulting in a large number of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless.
The city’s present economy is essentially a fresh development built on the past. Service sectors dominate, contributing for over 60% of the city’s GDP, with the financial, cultural, and tourist industries accounting for the top three. Information technology, energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grids, and intelligent equipment manufacture have all emerged as core businesses. Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong,Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, and Simcere Pharmaceutical are among the largest private companies. Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Nanjing Steel, Jincheng Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang, and NARI are all large state-owned enterprises. Multinational corporations such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Smith, and Sharp have established lines in the city, while a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM,Lucent, Samsung, and SAP have opened research centers there. Many top Chinese companies, including Huawei, ZTE, and Lenovo, maintain important R&D centers in the city. Nanjing is a center for industrial technology research and development, with several R&D facilities and institutes, particularly in the fields of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology, and novel material technology.
Nanjing’s economy, trade, industry, and city building have all grown in recent years. The city’s GDP was RMB 801 billion in 2013, ranking third in Jiangsu, and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174 (US$16041), an 11 percent rise from 2012. The average disposable income of an urban person was RMB 36,200, while the average net income of a rural resident was RMB 14,513. The urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, which was lower than the national average (4.3 percent). Nanjing’s GDP rated 12th in China in 2013, while its overall competency ranked 6th on the mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.