Lima is Peru’s capital and biggest city. It is situated in the Chillón, Rmac, and Lurn river basins, in the country’s central coastal region, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it constitutes the Lima Metropolitan Area. Lima is Peru’s most populated metropolitan region and the second biggest metropolis in the Americas (as measured by “city proper”), after only So Paulo and ahead of Mexico City.
Lima was established as Ciudad de los Reyes on January 18, 1535, by Spanish adventurer Francisco Pizarro. It was elevated to the status of capital and most populous city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. It became the capital of the Republic of Peru after the Peruvian War of Independence. Around one-third of the country’s population resides in urban areas.
Lima is home to one of the New World’s oldest institutes of higher learning. The National Institution of San Marcos was established on May 12, 1551, during Spain’s colonial reign and is the Americas’ oldest continually operating university.
Lima was selected to host the 2019 Pan American Games in October 2013. It hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the 1982 Miss Universe competition.
Lima hosted the World Bank Group and the International Monetary Fund’s 2015 Annual Meetings in October 2015.
Lima – Info Card
|POPULATION :||• City 8,852,000
• Metro 9,752,000
|FOUNDED :||January 18, 1536|
|TIME ZONE :||PET (UTC−5)|
|AREA :||• City 2,672.3 km2 (1,031.8 sq mi)
• Urban 800 km2 (300 sq mi)
• Metro 2,819.3 km2 (1,088.5 sq mi)
|ELEVATION :||0-1,550 m (0-5,090 ft)|
|COORDINATES :||12°2′36″S 77°1′42″W|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 50.12
• Female: 49.88%
|AREA CODE :||1|
|POSTAL CODE :|
|DIALING CODE :||+51 1|
Tourism in Lima
Lima’s tourist business is well-developed, owing to the city’s historic center, archaeological sites, nightlife, museums, art galleries, festivals, and customs. Lima has a plethora of restaurants and pubs providing both local and foreign cuisine.
The Historic Centre, which encompasses the districts of Lima and Rmac, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. The Monastery of San Francisco, the Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral, the Convent of Santo Domingo, and the Torre Tagle Palace are all examples of colonial architecture.
A popular circuit is a visit of the city’s churches. A stroll through the center neighborhood will take you past churches from the 16th and 17th centuries, the most notable of which are the Cathedral and Monastery of San Francisco, which are supposed to be linked by underground tunnels. Both houses are decorated with paintings, Sevilian tiling, and carved wood furniture.
Additionally, the Sanctuary of Las Nazarenas is noteworthy as the birthplace of the Lord of Miracles, whose October celebrations serve as the city’s most prominent religious event. Certain portions of the Walls have been preserved and are popular with visitors. These medieval Spanish walls were constructed to protect the city against pirates and privateers.
Beaches are popular during the summer months and are situated south of the city along the Pan-American Highway in neighborhoods such as Lurn, Punta Hermosa, Santa Mara del Mar (Peru), San Bartolo, and Asia.
Cieneguilla, Pachacamac, and the city of Chosica are popular tourist destinations for residents. Due to their greater elevation than Lima, they get more sunlight throughout the winter months, something the city usually lacks due to seasonal fog.
Climate of Lima
Lima’s climate is classified as moderate to warm. Despite its tropical and desert setting, Lima’s closeness to the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean results in temperatures that are far lower than those predicted for a tropical desert, and hence qualifies as a mild desert climate (Köppen: BWn). It is neither freezing nor too heated. Temperatures seldom dip below 14 degrees Celsius (57 degrees Fahrenheit) or soar beyond 29 degrees Celsius (84 degrees Fahrenheit). There are two different seasons: summer, which runs from December to April, and winter, which runs from June to October. May and November are often transition months, with a more dramatic change from warm to chilly weather.
Summers are hot, humid, and mostly cloudless. Daily temperatures range between 18 °C (64 °F) and 22 °C (72 °F) for lows and 24 °C (75 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F) for highs. On some mornings, coastal fog may be prevalent, as may high clouds in the afternoons and nights. Summer sunsets are vibrant, earning the moniker “cielo de brujas” (Spanish for “sky of witches”). Around 7 p.m., the sky frequently changes colors of orange, pink, and red. Winter weather is very different from summer weather. The sky are overcast, the breeze is strong, the humidity is high, and the temperatures are cold. Protracted (1-week or more) periods of gloomy overcast sky are not unusual. From June through September, persistent morning rain occurs on occasion, leaving the streets with a thin layer of water that often evaporates by early afternoon. Winter temperatures are rather constant throughout the day and night. They vary from 14 to 16 degrees Celsius (57 to 61 degrees Fahrenheit) for lows and 16 to 19 degrees Celsius (66 to 66 degrees Fahrenheit) for highs, seldom surpassing 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit) especially in the easternmost districts.
The relative humidity level is usually quite high, especially in the mornings. In the early summer, high humidity results in short morning fog and a typically permanent low cloud deck throughout the winter (generally developing in May and persisting into late November or even early December). Due to the prevailing onshore flow, the Lima region is one of the most cloudy on the whole Peruvian coast. Lima receives just 1284 hours of sunlight each year, including 28.6 hours in July and 184 hours in April, which is quite low for the latitude. Winter cloudiness drives residents to seek sunlight in Andean valleys often situated above 500 meters above sea level.
While relative humidity is high, rainfall is very minimal as a result of the great degree of atmospheric stability. The city’s water supply is impacted by the extreme lack of rainfall, which comes from wells and rivers that flow from the Andes. Inland regions get between 1 and 6 cm (2.4 in) of precipitation per year, the most of which falls during the winter months. Coastal areas get just one to three centimeters (1.2 in). Winter precipitation, as previously stated, takes the form of persistent morning drizzle occurrences. Locally, they are referred to as ‘gara’, ‘llovizna’, or ‘camanchacas’. Summer rain, on the other hand, is uncommon and manifests itself as isolated light and short showers. These often occur in the afternoons and nights when remnants of Andean storms make their way east. The absence of significant rainfall is due to strong atmospheric stability, which is generated by a mix of chilly waters from semi-permanent coastal upwelling, the cold Humboldt Current, and warm air aloft associated with the South Pacific anticyclone.
Lima’s climate, like that of the majority of coastal Peru, is significantly impacted by El Nio episodes. Coastal waters typically range between 17 and 19 degrees Celsius (63 and 66 degrees Fahrenheit), but may reach substantially higher temperatures (like in 1998, when the water reached 26 degrees Celsius (79 degrees Fahrenheit)). Air temperatures increase in lockstep. This was the situation when Lima set a new record high temperature of 34 °C (93 °F). During La Nia years, a cooler climate emerges. The metro area’s all-time record low is 8 °C (46 °F), set in winter 1988.
Geography of Lima
The urban area is around 800 km2 in size (310 sq mi). It is situated in the Peruvian coastal plain, primarily flat terrain, among the valleys of the Chillón, Rmac, and Lurn rivers. The city softly descends from the Pacific Ocean’s coastlines into valleys and mountain slopes reaching up to 1,550 meters (5,090 ft) above sea level. Within the city, there are many isolated hills that are not linked to the neighboring hill chains, including the El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria, and Pro hills. San Cristobal Hill, located just north of the city area in the Rmac District, is the local extreme of an Andean hill protrusion.
Metro Lima comprises an area of 2,672.28 km2 (1,031.77 sq mi), of which 825.88 km2 (318.87 sq mi) (31%) is urban and 1,846.40 km2 (712.90 sq mi) (69%) is suburban. The urban area stretches around 60 kilometers (37 miles) north to south and approximately 30 kilometers (19 miles) west to east. The city center is situated 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) inland on the banks of the Rmac River, a key resource for the city since it transports what will become drinking water for its residents and feeds the area’s hydroelectric dams. While there is no formal administrative definition of the city, it is often believed to consist of the central 30 of Lima Province’s 43 districts, equating to an urban region centered around the historic Cercado de Lima district. Lima is the hub of the Lima Metro Area, one of the continent’s ten biggest metropolitan regions. Lima is the second biggest desert city in the world, behind Cairo, Egypt.
Economy of Lima
Lima is the industrial and financial capital of the country and one of the most significant financial capitals in Latin America, home to a large number of national firms. It accounts for almost two-thirds of Peru’s industrial output and the majority of the country’s tertiary sector.
With over 7,000 manufacturers, the metropolitan region leads industrial growth, owing to the amount and quality of available labor, as well as transportation and other infrastructure. Textiles, clothes, and food are all examples of products. Manufacturing and/or processing of chemicals, fish, leather, and oil derivatives. The financial sector is located in San Isidro, whereas the majority of industrial activity is west of downtown, all the way to the Callao airport. Lima has South America’s biggest export sector and serves as a regional transportation hub.
Industrialization started in the 1930s, and by 1950, manufacturing accounted for 14% of GNP due to import substitution programs. In the late 1950s, manufacturers in Lima produced up to 70% of consumer products.
The Callao harbor is one of South America’s most important fishing and commerce ports, spanning about 47 hectares (120 acres) and transporting 20.7 million metric tons of cargo in 2007.
Commodities are the primary exports: oil, steel, silver, zinc, cotton, sugar, and coffee.
Lima contributed 53% of GDP in 2003.
Lima is home to the majority of international enterprises in Peru.
Peru’s GDP increased by 9% in 2007, the highest pace in South America.
Lima Stock Exchange increased by 185.24 percent in 2006 and another 168.3 percent in 2007, making it one of the world’s fastest growing stock exchanges at the time. The Lima Stock Exchange was the most lucrative in the world in 2006.
There were two summits held there in 2008: the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit and the Latin America, the Caribbean, and European Union Summit.
Banks such as Banco de Crédito del Per, Scotiabank Per, Interbank, Bank of the Nation, Banco Continental, MiBanco, Banco Interamericano de Finanzas, Banco Finaciero, Banco de Comercio, and CrediScotia have their headquarters in Lima. It serves as Standard Chartered’s regional headquarters. Rimac Seguros, Mapfre Peru, Interseguro, Pacifico, Protecta, and La Positiva are among the insurance companies headquartered in Lima.