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Montenegro travel guide - Travel S helper

Montenegro

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Montenegro (Montenegrin: Crna Gora ), Italian for “Black Mountain”, is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders Croatia on the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina on the northwest, Serbia on the northeast, Kosovo on the east, and Albania on the south-east. Podgorica serves as the capital and biggest city, while Cetinje is recognized as the Old Royal Capital (prijestonica).

In the ninth century, the area of Montenegro was divided between three Serbian principalities: Duklja, approximately equivalent to the southern half, Travunia, to the west, and Rascia, to the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav launched a rebellion that established Duklja’s independence and the Vojislavljevi dynasty. Duklja flourished under the leadership of Vojislav’s son Mihailo (1046–81) and grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the thirteenth century, Zeta had supplanted Duklja as the name for the kingdom. Southern Montenegro (Zeta) fell under the control of the Bali noble family in the late 14th century, then the Crnojevi noble family in the 15th century, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro). From 1496 until 1878, large parts were ruled by the Ottoman Empire. Venice and its predecessors, the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, ruled portions. From 1515 until 1851, the rulers were the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje. From 1697 until 1918, the nation was governed by the House of Petrovi-Njego. It was a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1945, when it was replaced by SFR Yugoslavia, then FR Yugoslavia, and finally by the state union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. Montenegro proclaimed independence on 3 June 2006, after a referendum conducted on 21 May 2006.

Montenegro is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement, and is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Montenegro is also a prospective member of the European Union and NATO. Montenegro accepted an official invitation to join NATO on 2 December 2015, making it the 29th member nation. This invitation was intended to initiate final accession negotiations.

Tourism

Montenegro boasts a beautiful shoreline as well as a hilly northern area. In the 1980s, the country was a popular tourist destination. Nonetheless, the Yugoslav conflicts waged in neighboring countries throughout the 1990s devastated the tourism sector and harmed Montenegro’s reputation for years.

The Montenegrin Adriatic coast is 295 kilometers (183 miles) long, with 72 kilometers (45 miles) of beaches and many well-preserved historic old towns. National Geographic Traveler (published once every decade) names Montenegro as one of the “50 Places of a Lifetime,” with the Montenegrin beach town of Sveti Stefan serving as the magazine’s cover. Montenegro’s seaside area is regarded as one of the major new “discoveries” among international visitors. The Ulcinj South Coast area of Montenegro, including Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, was named one of the “Top 31 Places to Go in 2010” by The New York Times in January 2010, as part of a global ranking of tourist destinations.

Montenegro was also named one of Yahoo Travel’s “10 Top Hot Spots of 2009” to visit, with the country described as “now rated as the world’s second fastest expanding tourist market (dropping just behind China).” Every year, renowned travel publications like as Lonely Planet rank it as a top touristic destination, among Greece, Spain, and other global touristic destinations.

The tourist sector did not begin to recover until the 2000s, and the nation has subsequently seen rapid increase in the number of visitors and overnight stays. Montenegro’s government has made the development of the country as an elite tourism destination a major priority. It is a national plan aimed at making tourism a significant contributor to the Montenegrin economy. To entice international investors, a variety of measures were made. Some major projects, such as Porto Montenegro, are currently underway, while other sites, such as Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaa, and Ada Bojana, may have the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist destinations on the Adriatic.

Geography and environment

Montenegro has borders with Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania. It is located between the latitudes of 41° and 44° N, and the longitudes of 18° and 21° E.

Montenegro’s terrain varies from high hills along its borders with Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania, a section of the western Balkan Peninsula’s Karst, to a small coastal plain just one to four miles (6.4 km) wide. The plain suddenly ends in the north, when Mount Loven and Mount Orjen fall into the Bay of Kotor’s entrance.

The vast Karst area of Montenegro is usually at heights of 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) above sea level; however, certain sections reach to 2,000 meters (6,560 feet), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 meters or 6,214 feet), the tallest massif among the coastal limestone mountains. The lowest section is the Zeta River valley, which has an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft).

Montenegro’s mountains include some of the most severe terrain in Europe, with elevations average over 2,000 meters. Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains is a prominent peak in the nation, reaching a height of 2,522 meters (8,274 ft). The Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded regions of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial era due to the hyperhumid environment on their western slopes.

  • Longest beach: Velika Plaža, Ulcinj — 13,000 m (8.1 mi)
  • Highest peak: Zla Kolata, Prokletije at 2,534 m (8,314 ft)
  • Largest lake: Skadar Lake — 391 km2 (151 sq mi) of surface area
  • Deepest canyon: Tara River Canyon — 1,300 m (4,300 ft)
  • Biggest bay: Bay of Kotor
  • National parks: Durmitor — 390 km2 (150 sq mi), Lovćen — 64 km2 (25 sq mi), Biogradska Gora — 54 km2 (21 sq mi), Skadar Lake — 400 km2 (154 sq mi) and Prokletije.
  • UNESCO World Heritage sites: Durmitor and Tara River Canyon, old town of Kotor.

Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) since the Danube catchment region encompasses more than 2,000 square kilometers (772 square miles) of the country’s territory.

Climate

Montenegro’s lower coastal regions have a Mediterranean climate with dry summers and warm, wet winters. The climate in the central and northern areas is Continental, with temperature varying significantly with elevation. Podgorica, located at sea level in the middle valley, has the highest July temperatures in Montenegro, averaging 35-40°C (95-104°F).

Cetinje, located in the Karst at a height of 670m (2,200 ft), has a 5°C (10°F) lower temperature. Temperatures in January vary from 8°C (46°F) in Bar on the southern coast to -3°C (27°F) in the northern area.

Montenegro’s hilly areas get some of Europe’s heaviest rainfall. Snow remains in the northern highlands into the spring.

Demographics

Ethnic structure

Montenegro has 620,145 people, according to the 2003 census. If the 1991 methodology had been followed in the 2003 census, Montenegro would have officially reported 673,094 people. Montenegro has 620,029 people, according to the 2011 census data.

Montenegro is a multiethnic country with no ethnic majority. Montenegrins (pноори/Crnogorci), Serbs (ри/Srbi), Bosniaks (Bonjaci), Albanians (Albanci – Shqiptart), and Croats are the major ethnic groupings (Hrvati). The number of “Montenegrins” and “Serbs” varies greatly between censuses owing to changes in how individuals perceive, feel, and express their identity and ethnic affiliation.

Religion

Montenegro has traditionally been at the crossroads of diversity, and this has created its unique type of coexistence between Muslim and Christian populations throughout centuries. Montenegrins have traditionally been members of the Serbian Orthodox Church (ruled by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral), and Serbian Orthodox Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Montenegro today. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church was established lately and is followed by a tiny minority of Montenegrins, but it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church since it is not legally recognized.

Despite the increased tensions between religious groups during the Bosnian War, Montenegro remained relatively peaceful, owing in part to its population’s historical view on religious tolerance and religion variety. Montenegrin religious institutions all have guaranteed rights and are independent of the state. Islam is the country’s second biggest religious group, accounting for 19% of the total population. The Islamic Community of Montenegro organizes the Islamic religious life in the country. The majority of Albanians are Sunni Muslims, and in 2012, a protocol was passed that recognizes Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served in military facilities, hospitals, dormitories, and all social facilities, and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to taqwa. There is also a tiny Roman Catholic community, mainly Albanians with few Croats, split between the Archdiocese of Antivari, which is led by the Primate of Serbia, and the Diocese of Kotor, which is affiliated with the Church of Croatia.

Economy

Montenegro’s economy is mostly service-based, and it is in the process of transitioning to a market economy. Montenegro’s nominal GDP in 2009 was $4.114 billion, according to the International Monetary Fund. In 2009, the GDP PPP was $6.590 billion, or $10,527 per capita. According to Eurostat statistics, Montenegro’s GDP per capita in 2010 was 41% of the EU average. The Central Bank of Montenegro is not a member of the eurozone, but the nation has “euroized,” utilizing the euro as its only currency.

GDP increased by 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5 percent in 2008. As part of the global crisis, the nation experienced a recession in 2008, with GDP falling by 4%. Montenegro, on the other hand, remained a target for international investment, being the only Balkan country to grow its quantity of direct foreign investment. The nation is projected to emerge from the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth of about 0.5 percent. However, the Montenegrin economy’s reliance on foreign direct investment makes it vulnerable to external shocks and has a large export/import trade imbalance.

In 2007, the service sector accounted for 72.4 percent of GDP, with industry and agriculture accounting for the remaining 17.6 percent and 10%, respectively. Montenegro has 50,000 agricultural families that depend on agriculture to supplement their family’s income.

How To Travel To Montenegro

By plane The major international airport in Montenegro is Podgorica. It is located 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) south of Podgorica. It serves as a hub for Montenegro Airlines, the country's main airline. The minibus, which typically waits in front of the terminal, may take you from the airport to the center...

How To Travel Around Montenegro

By train There is a local rail service that runs from Bar to Bijelo Polje, passing via Podgorica, Kolasin, and Mojkovac. It is the cheapest method to go from north to south and vice versa, however the service is not of great quality. In recent months, Montenegro acquired new trains...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Montenegro

The majority of international visitors arrive in Montenegro via plane, road from Croatia, or sometimes by sea from Italy. Tourists from Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania mostly utilize the land routes from those countries. Holders of travel documents containing a valid Schengen visa, a valid visa from the United States...

Destinations in Montenegro

Regions in Montenegro Montenegro is officially split into 21 municipalities, which are further subdivided into five regions: Bay of KotorThis bay is regarded as one of Europe's most beautiful, and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in its whole. It contains Perast and Kotor, as well as other typical Mediterranean...

Things To See in Montenegro

Despite its tiny size, Montenegro has magnificent alpine scenery, dramatic shore lines, ancient monuments, and really lovely walled towns. Montenegro's shoreline is equally as beautiful as that of its more well-known neighbor, Croatia, and it's no surprise that its major tourist sites may become busy in the summer. However,...

Things To Do in Montenegro

Festivals Montenegro offers a plethora of local festivals that are well worth attending, ranging from traditional music performances to local celebrations with free food and beverages. Typically, wine and shellfish are served. Bokeska Noc (3rd week of August) - Celebrations beneath masks near Kotor's famous fortifications, where a terrible figure is burnt...

Food & Drinks in Montenegro

Food in Montenegro Apart from hotels in towns and summer resorts that offer half-board and full-board accommodation, as well as those along roads and communication lines such as restaurants, pizza places, taverns, fast food restaurants, and cafes, there is a selection of national restaurants that serve traditional Montenegrin cuisine. Montenegro provides...

Money & Shopping in Montenegro

Montenegro uses the euro. It is one of many European nations that utilize this common currency. All euro banknotes and coins are legal tender in all countries. One euro is split into 100 cents. The euro is denoted by the symbol € and has the ISO code EUR. The cent has...

Festivals & Holidays in Montenegro

Official holidays State and other holidays are all non-working days. Religious holidays are days off from work for particular religious groups. Please keep in mind that if the first day of State and Other Holidays occurs on a Sunday, the following two working days are non-working days. Furthermore, if the second...

Traditions & Customs in Montenegro

Short pants are generally not allowed in public places (hospitals, etc.). When visiting monasteries and cathedrals, dress modestly. Taking off the lower half of a swimsuit on a beach would certainly cause a fuss and is usually reserved for authorized nudist beaches. When toasting and clutching glasses, you must look the...

Internet & Communications in Montenegro

Wi-Fi Customers may connect to Wi-Fi in cafes and cafeterias, and most hotels provide Wi-Fi in common areas for their guests. Wi-Fi is also available in certain major tourist locations. When utilizing unprotected wifi networks, keep security in mind. Mobile phones and SIM cards Sim cards for mobile phones are currently available for...

Language & Phrasebook in Montenegro

Montenegrin is the official language. It is almost identical to Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian. Albanian is widely spoken in municipalities with an Albanian majority (Ulcinj) or a significant minority (Plav, Gusinje), as well as the Malesia area in Podgorica municipality. Slovenian and Macedonian may also be spoken. Despite the...

Culture Of Montenegro

Throughout history, a number of influences have influenced Montenegro's culture. Orthodox, Slavic, Central European, and maritime Adriatic cultures (particularly in areas of Italy, such as the Republic of Venice) have had the most impact in recent centuries. Montenegro has numerous important cultural and historical sites, including pre-Romanesque, Gothic, and Baroque...

History Of Montenegro

Ancient times The Illyrians were the earliest known inhabitants of the area, coming in the late Iron Age. By 1000 BC, the Illyrian language and civilization had spread across the Balkans. Interaction between tribes was not always amicable — hill forts were the most frequent type of habitation – but...

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