Uzbekistan, formally the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a Central Asian nation with two geographical borders. It is a presidential republic with twelve provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Kazakhstan to the north, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the south, and Turkmenistan to the southwest border Uzbekistan.
The area that now comprises the Republic of Uzbekistan was captured in the early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads who were formerly part of the Turkic Khaganate and later Timurid Empires. During the nineteenth century, the region was progressively absorbed by the Russian Empire, and in 1924, what is now Uzbekistan became a bounded component republic of the Soviet Union called as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). On August 31, 1991, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, it proclaimed independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan (officially celebrated the following day).
Officially, Uzbekistan is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional country with a rich cultural history. The official language of the nation is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin script and spoken natively by roughly 85 percent of the people; nevertheless, Russian is also widely used. Uzbeks make up 81 percent of the population, followed by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5 percent ). The overwhelming majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations (UN), and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
Uzbekistan’s economy is mostly based on commodity production, which includes cotton, gold, uranium, and natural gas. Despite its stated goal of transitioning to a market economy, its government continues to retain economic restrictions that favor domestic “import substitution” over imports.