Friday, May 27, 2022
Mongolia travel guide - Travel S helper


Read next

Mongolia is an East Asian landlocked sovereign state. Its extent is approximately equal to Outer Mongolia’s historical territory, and the name is sometimes used to refer to the present state. It is bounded on the south by China and on the north by Russia. While Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, the distance between the two countries is just 36.76 kilometers (22.84 mi).

Mongolia, with a population of approximately 3 million people, is the 18th biggest and most sparsely populated completely independent nation in the world, covering 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 square miles). Additionally, it is the world’s second-largest landlocked nation. The nation has relatively little arable land, since the majority of its territory is covered by grassland steppe, surrounded by mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the country’s capital and biggest city, is home to about 45% of the population.

Around 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is ingrained. Buddhists make up the lion’s share of its population. The second biggest category is the non-religious. Among ethnic Kazakhs, Islam is the predominant religion. Although the majority of the state’s inhabitants are Mongols, the nation is also home to Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other ethnicities, particularly in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and is actively seeking membership in regional economic and trade organizations.

Various nomadic empires have reigned over what is now Mongolia, notably the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, and the Turkic Khaganate. Genghis Khan established the Mongol Empire in 1206, which grew to be the world’s biggest continuous land empire. Kublai Khan, his grandson, invaded China and established the Yuan dynasty. After the Yuan collapsed, the Mongols returned to Mongolia and resumed their previous pattern of factional warfare, with the exception of the eras of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.

Tibetan Buddhism expanded across Mongolia in the 16th century, aided by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which annexed the nation in the 17th century. By the early 1900s, Buddhist monks accounted for almost one-third of the adult male population. Mongolia proclaimed independence from the Qing dynasty in 1911 and de facto independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the nation was annexed by the Soviet Union, which had helped in the country’s independence from China. Mongolian People’s Republic was established as a Soviet satellite state in 1924. Mongolia had its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990, after the 1989 anti-Communist uprisings. This resulted in the establishment of a multi-party system, the adoption of a new constitution in 1992, and the transition to a market economy.

Mongolia has the lowest population density of any independent country, with only 1.7 people per square kilometer, and it is this vast and majestic emptiness that is the country’s enduring appeal, bringing the traveller into close communion with nature and its nomadic inhabitants. Mongolia is a landlocked country sandwiched between China and Russia. With good reason, the country is known as the “Land of Blue Skies.” Each year, the sun is said to shine for about 250 days. Winters are bitterly cold, with temperatures as low as -40°C in some areas. The weather in the summer varies from region to region, but is generally hot, thanks to the diverse terrain, which ranges from desert to verdant mountains. This time of year is marked by many rains in some areas outside of the Gobi desert, and it can get quite cool at night.

The ISO 9 standard transliteration of Cyrillic is not widely used for several letters, and there is no consensus in Mongolia or on Wikivoyage. The letter “” is transliterated “ô”, “ö”, “o” or “u”, but Latin “o” is also the transliteration of Cyrillic “о”, and Latin “u” is also the transliteration of Cyrillic “у” and “y” (the latter should be transliterated “ù” according to ISO 9, but this is rarely done). So, if you can’t find a name written exactly as you want it, try different spellings.


Mongolia is nearly the same size as Alaska and more than twice the size of Texas. It covers 1.6 million square kilometers (603,000 square miles), more than four times the size of Japan and nearly twice the size of Eastern Europe.

Mongolia is the sixth-largest country in Asia and the nineteenth-largest country in the world, but its population is only 2,727,966 (as of November 9, 2009), making it one of Asia’s least densely populated areas.

When you consider that Ulan Bator, or Ulaanbaatar (“UB”), is home to 40% of the population, there is plenty of room for you to explore the countryside. Gobi, on the other hand, is even less dense.

With their 56 million sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels, almost another 40% of Mongolia’s population is dispersed across the country. Aimag refers to the 21 provinces that make up the country. You’ll know which aimag and which soum you’re in because each aimag has a central city or town and about 15-22 sub-provinces called soum.

Mongolia’s population is 70% under the age of 35. The male-to-female ratio is close to one-to-one. 84 percent are Khalkha Mongols, 6% are Kazakhs, and 10% are from other ethnic groups.

More than half will claim to be Buddhists, a religion that is heavily influenced by Shamanism, close to ten percent will claim to be Christians in any form, four percent will claim to be Muslims, and the remaining half will claim to be atheists. Bayan-lgii province is home to almost all Kazakhs and Muslims.

Geography and climate

Mongolia is the world’s 18th biggest nation, with 1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi) (after Iran). It is far bigger than Peru, the next-largest nation. It is mainly located between 41° and 52°N (with a tiny region north of 52°) and 87° and 120°E longitudes. Mongolia’s northernmost portion is approximately on the same latitude as Berlin (Germany) and Amsterdam (Netherlands), while its southernmost part is generally on the same latitude as Rome (Italy) and Chicago (USA) (USA). Mongolia’s westernmost region is approximately parallel to Kolkata (India), while its easternmost region is parallel to Qinhuangdao (China) and Hangzhou (China), as well as the western edge of Taiwan. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although it is just 36.76 kilometers (22.84 miles) away at its westernmost point.

Mongolia is renowned as the “Land of Eternal Blue Sky” or “Country of Blue Sky” because it boasts over 250 sunny days each year (Mongolian: “Mönkh khökh tengeriin oron”).

Mongolia has a diverse topography, with the Gobi Desert in the south and frigid, mountainous areas in the north and west. Mongolia is mostly made up of steppes, with wooded regions accounting for 11.2 percent of the total land area, which is greater than the Republic of Ireland (10 percent ). At 4,374 meters, Mongolia’s highest peak is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif in the extreme west (14,350 ft). The Uvs Lake basin, which is shared with Russia’s Tuva Republic, is a natural World Heritage Site. The majority of the nation is scorching in the summer and very cold in the winter, with January temperatures as low as 30 degrees Celsius (22 degrees Fahrenheit). In the winter, a large front of cold, heavy, shallow air arrives from Siberia and accumulates in river valleys and low basins, resulting in very cold temperatures on the mountain slopes owing to the effects of temperature inversion (temperature increases with altitude).

During the winter, the Siberian Anticyclone affects the whole country of Mongolia. Uvs province (Ulaangom), western Khovsgol (Rinchinlhumbe), eastern Zavkhan (Tosontsengel), northern Bulgan (Hutag), and eastern Dornod province are the areas most impacted by the cold weather (Khalkhiin Gol). Ulaanbaatar is also badly impacted, but not as badly. As one travels south, the cold becomes less severe, with the hottest January temperatures recorded in Omnogovi Province (Dalanzadgad, Khanbogd) and the Altai mountain area bordering China. The rich grassland-forest area of central and eastern Arkhangai Province (Tsetserleg) and northern Ovorkhangai Province (Arvaikheer) has a distinct microclimate, with January temperatures that are on average the same as, if not greater than, the hottest desert regions to the south. The Khangai Mountains contribute to the formation of this microclimate. Nighttime January temperatures in Tsetserleg, the hottest town in this microclimate, seldom drop below 30 °C (22 °F), whereas daytime January temperatures range from 0 °C (32 °F) to 5 °C (41 °F).

Zud, or severe climatic conditions, occur on occasion throughout the nation. Ulaanbaatar is the coldest capital city in the world, with an annual average temperature of 1.3 °C/29.7 °F. Mongolia is a mountainous, cold, and windy country. It has a continental climate with long, cold winters and brief summers, when the majority of the year’s precipitation falls. The nation has an average of 257 cloudless days each year and is typically in the middle of a high-pressure area. The north gets the most precipitation (an average of 200 to 350 millimeters (7.9 to 13.8 in) per year, while the south receives the least (100 to 200 millimeters (3.9 to 7.9 in) each year. The greatest annual precipitation of 622.297 mm (24.50 in) was recorded in the woods of Bulgan Province near the Russian border, while the lowest was recorded in the Gobi Desert at 41.735 mm (1.64 in) (period 1961–1990). The sparsely populated far north of Bulgan Province gets an average of 600 millimetres (23.62 in) of annual precipitation, which is higher than Beijing (571.8 mm) or Berlin (571.8 mm) (571mm).

The word “Gobi” comes from a Mongol phrase for a desert steppe, which is a kind of dry rangeland with enough flora to sustain camels but not enough to support marmots. Outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian environment may not be able to tell the difference between the Gobi and the desert proper. Overgrazing may quickly damage Gobi rangelands, resulting in the development of the real desert, a rocky waste where not even Bactrian camels can thrive. The Himalayan rain shadow effect is responsible for the dry conditions in the Gobi. Mongolia was a thriving home for important species before the Himalayas were created by the collision of the Indo-Australian plate with the Eurasian plate 10 million years ago, although it was still relatively dry and chilly owing to its distance from evaporation sources. Apart from the more well-known dinosaur fossils, sea turtle and mollusc fossils have been discovered in the Gobi. Even now, tadpole shrimps (Lepidurus mongolicus) may be found in the Gobi. The Amur river basin, which drains into the Pacific Ocean, includes the eastern half of Mongolia, including the Onon and Kherlen rivers, as well as Lake Buir. The Eastern brook lamprey, Daurian crayfish (cambaroides dauricus), and Daurian pearl oyster (dahurinaia dahurica) may all be found in the Onon/Kherlen rivers, while the Siberian prawn (exopalaemon modestus) can be found in Lake Buir.


Mongolia’s overall population was estimated by the United States Census Bureau to be 3,000,251 persons in January 2015, placing it approximately 121st in the world in terms of population. However, the United States Department of State’s Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs relies on UN estimates rather than Census Bureau estimates. Mongolia’s overall population, according to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs’ Population Division, was 2,629,000 in mid-2007 (11 percent less than the U.S. Census Bureau figure). The UN figures are similar to those of Mongolia’s National Statistical Office (2,612,900, end of June 2007). Mongolia’s population is expected to increase at a pace of 1.2 percent each year (2007 est.). Around 59 percent of the population is under the age of 30, with 27 percent of them being under the age of 14. Mongolia’s economy has been strained by its relatively youthful and increasing population.

In 1918, the first census of the twentieth century was conducted, with a population of 647,500 people.


According to current UN estimates, Mongolia’s total fertility rate (children per woman) has declined at a faster pace than any other nation in the world after the collapse of socialism: in 1970–1975, fertility was projected to be 7.33 children per woman, falling to approximately 2.1 in 2000–2005. However, that tendency has recently been reversed, and between 2005 and 2010, the projected fertility value rose to 2.5 before stabilizing at about 2.2–2.3 children per woman.

Ethnic Mongols make up approximately 95% of the population and are divided into Khalkha and other groups, all of which are differentiated by dialects of the Mongol language. 86 percent of the ethnic Mongol people are Khalkha. Oirats, Buryats, and others make up the remaining 14%. The Turkic peoples (Kazakhs and Tuvans) make up 4.5 percent of Mongolia’s population, with the remainder coming from Russia, China, Korea, and the United States.


According to the 2010 National Census, Buddhists made up 53% of Mongolians aged 15 and above, while non-religious people made up 39%.

Mongolian shamanism has been practiced extensively throughout the history of what is now Mongolia, with comparable beliefs held by Central Asian nomads. They lost way to Tibetan Buddhism throughout time, but shamanism has remained a part of Mongolian religious tradition and is still practiced. The Kazakhs of western Mongolia, as well as certain Mongols and other Turkic peoples in the nation, practice Islam.

Throughout most of the twentieth century, the Mongolian people’s religious activities were largely suppressed by the communist government. It was aimed at the Mongolian Buddhist Church’s clergy, who were closely linked to the old feudal government institutions (e.g. from 1911 on, the head of the Church had also been the khanof the country). Khorloogiin Choibalsan’s government liquidated nearly all of Mongolia’s 700 Buddhist monasteries in the late 1930s, killing at least 30,000 individuals, including 18,000 lamas. From 100,000 in 1924 to 110 in 1990, the number of Buddhist monks has decreased dramatically.

The collapse of communism in 1991 allowed for the reintroduction of public religious activity. Tibetan Buddhism, which had been the main religion before to communism’s emergence, has once again risen to become Mongolia’s most commonly practiced religion. Other faiths were able to spread in the nation when religious persecution ended in the 1990s. The number of Christians increased from four in 1989 to approximately 40,000 in 2008, according to the Christian missionary organization Barnabas Fund. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which has 10,900 members and 16 church buildings in Mongolia, conducted a cultural event in May 2013 to commemorate 20 years of LDS Church history in Mongolia. Mongolia has around 1,000 Catholics, and Mongolia’s first Catholic bishop was appointed in 2003 by a missionary from the Philippines.


Mongolia’s economy has historically been focused on herding and agriculture, but the discovery of large mineral reserves of copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold has become a major source of industrial output. Apart from mining (21.8 percent of GDP) and agriculture (16 percent of GDP), wholesale and retail commerce and service, transportation and storage, and real estate activities are the most important sectors in the GDP composition. According to estimates, the grey economy is at least one-third the size of the formal economy. Mongolia exported 68.4% of its exports to the PRC in 2006, while the PRC imported 29.8% of Mongolia’s imports.

The World Bank classifies Mongolia as a lower middle-income country. On a daily basis, 22.4 percent of the population lives on less than US$1.25. The GDP per capita in 2011 was $3,100. Despite the fact that the population has grown, the percentage of people living in poverty has risen from 35.6 percent in 1998 to 36.1 percent in 2002–2003 to 32.2 percent in 2006.

Mongolia had strong growth rates in 2007 and 2008 due to a mining boom (9.9 percent and 8.9 percent , respectively). The local currency fell 40% versus the US dollar in 2009 due to significant declines in commodities prices and the impact of the global financial crisis. Two of the sixteen commercial banks have been placed under receivership. GDP growth is projected to reach 16.4 percent in 2011. Inflation, on the other hand, has continued to erode GDP increases, with Mongolia’s average rate of 12.6 percent anticipated by the end of 2011. Despite the fact that GDP has been gradually increasing since 2002, at a pace of 7.5 percent in an official 2006 estimate, the government is still trying to close a large trade imbalance. The Economist projected that Mongolia’s 14 percent GDP trade deficit will turn into a surplus in 2013.

Mongolia was never classified as an emerging market country until Citigroup researchers decided in February 2011 that Mongolia was one of the “global growth producing” nations, which are those with the most promising development prospects for 2010–2050. The Mongolian Stock Exchange, based in Ulaanbaatar, was founded in 1991 and is one of the world’s smallest stock exchanges in terms of market capitalization. After quadrupling from US$406 million in 2008, it has 336 businesses listed in 2011, with a total market value of US$2 billion. Mongolia improved its ease of doing business significantly in 2012, rising to 76th place from 88th place the previous year in the International Finance Corporation’s “Doing Business” report (IFC).

How To Travel To Mongolia

By planeChinggis Khaan International Airport (IATA: ULN) in Ulaanbaatar is currently linked to most major airport hubs in Asia and a few in Europe, thanks to a growing mining industry. MIAT Mongolian Airlines, the national airline, offers daily flights (daily during certain peak seasons) from Beijing and Seoul, as...

How To Travel Around Mongolia

Take a GPS and some maps if you want to go about the countryside without a guide. The "Mongolia Road Atlas," which is almost 60 pages long and covers the whole nation, is available in many bookstores. Note that there is a Latin character version and a Cyrillic character...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Mongolia

There are just a few methods to enter Mongolia since it is a landlocked nation that shares a border with two other countries, Russia and China. You have the option of flying or obtaining a visa for China or Russia and traveling by rail, bus, or car.Entry requirementsForeigners may...

Destinations in Mongolia

Regions in MongoliaBased on culture and geography, the nation may be divided into five different areas. There are 21 provinces and one special municipality that make up these areas.Central MongoliaUlaanbaatar and Arkhangai, a famous tourist destination, are included.Eastern MongoliaGenghis Khan's birthplace and the Mongolian steppe's heartGobias the name implies,...

Accommodation & Hotels in Mongolia

In Ulaanbaatar, there is some western-style lodging, although it is at western rates. There are a few excellent guest houses in UB for less than USD10 a night (as low as MNT3,000 if you're willing to share a room), but they're busy and difficult to get into during the...

Things To See in Mongolia

Mongolia is a large nation that, until recently, was out of reach of tourists and the trappings of civilisation. Even now, getting between the few 'existing' locations may be challenging. There isn't much interesting architecture in the nation. With the exception of the Mongol Empire's short-lived capital at Karakorum,...

Things To Do in Mongolia

Spend the night with a nomadic family, learn about their lifestyle, and share a dinner with them. They provide a true Mongolian experience. This is the most memorable aspect of any vacation, whether you travel just outside of the city or fly to the remote reaches of the nation....

Food & Drinks in Mongolia

Food in MongoliaMongolians eat mutton or sheep as their primary source of protein. Beef may also appear on the menu from time to time. A big plate piled with fried noodles and slivers of mutton would set you back around MNT2,000-4,000. A big bottle of ketchup will be on...

Money & Shopping in Mongolia

CurrencyMongolian currency is the tögrög, tugrik, tôgrôg, tugrug, or togrog (Mongol: тp, sign: MNT), ISO 4217 international currency code. The letters "tg" or "T" may also be seen.MNT1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 banknotes are in circulation.TippingTipping is seldom required in Mongolia, with...

Festivals & Holidays in Mongolia

For many Mongols, the annual Naadam celebration (11–13 July) is the most important day of the year. It's the time of year when Mongolians celebrate their "three masculine sports": wrestling, horse racing, and archery, either in Ulaanbaatar or on television or radio.Throughout July, several smaller Naadam celebrations take place...

Internet & Communications in Mongolia

In the capital, there are many Internet cafés and nicer restaurants with Wi-Fi. Because the postal service is sluggish, most individuals use a PO Box to receive mail. It is possible to purchase phone cards that can be used to make low-cost international calls from domestic phones, although not...

Language & Phrasebook in Mongolia

Mongolian is the official language, and everyone in the nation speaks it as their first language, with the exception of the westernmost province, where Kazakh is spoken. Even after months of immersion in the culture, Westerners find it very difficult to acquire and speak the language. It takes a...

Traditions & Customs in Mongolia

Mongols, like their progenitor Chinggis Khan, used to dwell on the steppes and raise horses. Following Western niceties will, predictably, have the opposite impact in Mongolia. However, there are a few ground rules to observe. Receiving things should always be done with the right hand, palm facing up. Drink...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Mongolia

Stay Safe in MongoliaMongolia, with the exception of Ulaanbaatar, is a safe destination to visit. Pickpocketing and bag slashing have been more common in recent years, so keep your personal possessions secure (money belts are highly advised), particularly in busy locations or places where your attention is distracted, such...



South America


North America

Most Popular