The Afghan culture dates back more than two millennia, at least to the period of the Achaemenid Empire around 500 BC. It is primarily a nomadic and tribal culture, with various areas of the country having their unique customs that represent the nation’s multicultural and multilingual character. Pashtun culture people live in Pashtunwali, an ancient way of life that has persisted to this day, in the southern and eastern area. The remainder of the nation is Persian and Turkish in culture. Pashtunwali was embraced by certain non-Pashtuns living near Pashtuns in a process known as Pashtunization (or Afghanization), while other Pashtuns were persecuted. Millions of Afghans who have lived in Pakistan and Iran over the last 30 years have been affected by the cultures of their neighbors.
Afghans are proud of their culture, country, origins, religion, and independence. They are regarded with worry and contempt, like other climbers, for their high regard for personal dignity, devotion to their tribe, and readiness to resolve conflicts. Because tribal warfare and civic instability have always been one of their primary professions, their individualism has made it difficult for outsiders to subjugate them. Tony Heathcote thinks that the tribal system is the greatest method to manage huge groups of people in a geographically challenging region and in a culture with a materialistic lifestyle. It is believed that there are 60 tribes, mostly Pashtun, and that there are approximately 2-3 million Afghan nomads.
The country has a complicated past that has been preserved in its current cultures or in the shape of many languages and monuments. Many of the historic sites, however, were destroyed during the previous conflicts. The Taliban, who saw idol worshippers as a threat, demolished the two renowned Bamiyan Buddhas. Nonetheless, archaeologists continue to discover Buddhist relics in different areas of the nation, some of which date back to the second century. This suggests that Buddhism was widely practiced in Afghanistan. Herat, Kandahar, Ghazni, Mazar-i-Sharif, and Zarang are other historical cities. Hari Rivervalley’s Jam Minaret is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Cape Protected Area in Kandahar, a city established by Alexander and the first capital of Afghanistan, has a purported cloak worn by the Prophet Muhammad of Islam. The Citadel of Alexander in the western city of Herat has recently been restored and is a famous tourist destination. The shrine of Hazrat Ali, which many think is where Ali was buried, is located in the country’s north. The Afghan Ministry of Information and Culture is restoring 42 ancient sites in Ghazni until 2013, when the province will be designated as the capital of Islamic civilisation. Kabul is home to the National Museum of Afghanistan.
Despite poor literacy, traditional Persian and Pashtun poetry is significant in Afghan culture. Poetry has traditionally been one of the most significant educational foundations of the area, especially at the cultural level. Rumi, Rabi’a Balkhi, Sanai, Jami, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Parween Pazhwak are among the notable poets.