Suriname, formally the Republic of Suriname, is a sovereign state located on South America’s northeastern Atlantic coast. It is bounded on the east by French Guiana, on the west by Guyana, and on the south by Brazil. It is the smallest nation in South America, with little under 165,000 km2 (64,000 sq mi). Suriname has a population of about 566,000 people, the most of whom reside on the country’s north coast, in and around Paramaribo, the capital and biggest city.
Suriname was long inhabited by a variety of indigenous civilizations before falling under Dutch control in the late 17th century. The nation became a component country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1954. Suriname gained independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands on 25 November 1975, while retaining strong economic, diplomatic, and cultural connections to its former colonizer. Its indigenous peoples have been more vocal in demanding land rights and advocating for the preservation of their native lands and ecosystems.
Suriname is a culturally Caribbean nation and a Caribbean Community member (CARICOM). While Dutch is the official language of government, business, the media, and education, Sranan is a commonly used lingua franca based on English. Suriname is the only country outside of Europe where the majority of the people speaks Dutch. Suriname’s population is one of the most varied in the world, including a wide range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groupings.
Suriname is South America’s smallest sovereign nation. It is mainly located on the Guiana Shield, between latitudes 1° and 6°N and longitudes 54° and 58°W. The nation is split into two geographical areas. The northern, lowland coastal region (approximately above the Albina-Paranam-Wageningen line) has been farmed, and it is home to the majority of the inhabitants. The southern portion of Suriname is made up of tropical rainforest and sparsely populated savanna near the border with Brazil, accounting for about 80% of the country’s land area.
The Bakhuys Mountains and the Van Asch Van Wijck Mountains are the two major mountain ranges. Julianatop, at 1,286 meters (4,219 feet) above sea level, is the highest point in the nation. Tafelberg (1,026 metres (3,366 feet), Mount Kasikasima (718 metres (2,356 feet), Goliathberg (358 metres (1,175 feet), and Voltzberg (240 metres) are among the other mountains (790 ft).