The Congo Republic (French: République du Congo), often known as the Congo Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, or simply Congo, is a Central African republic. It is bounded on the west by Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean, on the northwest by Cameroon, on the northeast by the Central African Republic, on the east and south by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and on the southwest by the Angolan exclave of Cabinda.
Bantu-speaking tribes controlled the region, establishing trade routes into the Congo River basin. Congo-Brazzaville was once a French colony in Equatorial Africa. The former French Congo became the Republic of the Congo after independence in 1960. From 1970 until 1991, the People’s Republic of the Congo was a Marxist–Leninist one-party state. Although a democratically elected government was deposed during the Republic of the Congo Civil War in 1997, President Denis Sassou Nguesso has reigned for 26 of the previous 36 years.
The Republic of the Congo became the fourth largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea as a result of political stability and hydrocarbon development, providing the country with relative prosperity despite the country’s poor infrastructure and public services, as well as an unequal distribution of oil revenues.