Saturday, October 16, 2021

Haiti

Haiti, formally the Republic of Haiti (French: République d’Hati; Haitian Creole: Repiblik Ayiti), is a Western Hemisphere sovereign state (North America). The nation is situated on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago. It controls three-eighths of the island’s western third, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti has an area of 27,750 square kilometers (10,714 square miles) and is home to an estimated 10.6 million people, making it the most populated nation in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second most populous in the Caribbean as a whole.

Originally, the area was inhabited by the indigenous Tano people. Spain discovered the island for Europeans on 5 December 1492, during Christopher Columbus’s first transatlantic trip. When Columbus first arrived in Haiti, he believed he had discovered India or Asia. Columbus’ flagship, the Santa Maria, went aground north of what is now Limonade on Christmas Day 1492. As a result, Columbus sent his men to salvage everything they could from the ship and established the first European colony in the Americas, which he named La Navidad in honor of the day the ship was wrecked.

Spain, which governed until the early 17th century, called the island La Espaola and claimed it. The French surrendered the western part of the island to France, which renamed it Saint-Domingue, as a result of competing claims and settlements. The growth of sugarcane plantations, which were labored on by African slaves, resulted in the colony being one of the most prosperous in the world.

Slaves and free people of color revolutionized Haiti during the French Revolution (1789–1799), ending in the abolition of slavery and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte’s army at the Battle of Vertières. Following that, on 1 January 1804, the sovereign nation of Haiti was established – the first independent nation in Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the only nation in the western hemisphere to defeat three European superpowers (Britain, France, and Spain), and the only nation in the world to be founded as a result of a successful slave revolt. Toussaint Louverture, a former slave and the first black commander in the French Army, led the revolt that started in 1791, transforming a whole society of slaves into an independent nation via his military brilliance and political savvy. After his death in a French jail, his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, proclaimed Haiti’s sovereignty and eventually became the country’s first Emperor, Jacques I. The Haitian Revolution lasted almost a decade, and all of the country’s initial leaders were former slaves, with the exception of Alexandre Pétion, the Republic’s first President. The Citadelle Laferrière is the world’s biggest fortification. Henri Christophe – a former slave who became Haiti’s first monarch, Henri I – constructed it to resist a potential foreign invasion.

Haiti is also a member of the Latin Union, the Organization of American States, and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States; it is also pursuing associate membership in the African Union and was a founding member of the International Francophonie Organisation. It has the Americas’ lowest Human Development Index. Most recently, in February 2004, a coup d’état originating in the country’s north forced President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s resignation and exile. A temporary government seized power, with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti providing security (MINUSTAH). The former president, Michel Martelly, was elected in the 2011 general election.

Haiti | Introduction

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti (French: République d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Repiblik Ayiti), is a sovereign state in the Western Hemisphere (North America). The country is located on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island,...

How To Travel To Haiti

By air International travellers arrive in Haiti in Port-au-Prince (PAP) at Toussaint L'Ouverture Airport or at Cap-Haitien International Airport in the north. Airline tickets can be purchased through numerous online ticket exchanges and agencies. Intra-Haitian flights are also available. Prices for these flights can fluctuate from time to time due...

How To Travel Around Haiti

By car Cars can be rented from Hertz, Avis, etc. Taxis in Haiti are usually SUVs or trucks, as most roads are long overdue for repair, in addition to the abundance of dirt roads encountered when travelling in Haiti. The price is often reasonable (e.g. 450 gourdes, or $11.53 to...

Destinations in Haiti

Regions in Haiti Central HaitiThe centre of Haiti's population in the heart of the country - the sprawl around the capital and the countryside in the north. North HaitiThe country's main towns outside the capital are located here, as are the beaches at Cap-Haitien favoured by foreign tourists. Southern HaitiThe Caribbean part...

Weather & Climate in Haiti

The climate in Haiti is tropical with some variations depending on altitude. The temperature in Port-au-Prince varies between an average low of 23°C and an average high of 31°C in January, and between 25 and 35°C in July. The rainfall pattern is variable, with heavier rainfall in some lowlands...

Accommodation & Hotels in Haiti

There are many guesthouses all over Haiti. However, it is quite difficult to find them abroad. Most of these guest houses cost around $25 to $35 per night and include 2 to 3 meals per day. Sometimes these houses are connected to orphanages (e.g. Saint Joseph's Home for Boys). Saint...

Traditions & Customs in Haiti

One thing a missionary or other visitor to Haiti learns very quickly is that Haitians are a very dignified people; they have their pride, despite everything they have been through. There are a few beggars and peddlers in the cities, but they are the exception, not the rule. Don't...

Food & Drinks in Haiti

Food in Haiti Haitian cuisine is typical of the Caribbean mix, a wonderful blend of French and African sensibilities. It resembles that of its Spanish Caribbean neighbours, but is characterised by a strong presence of spices. Roasted goat called "kabrit", roasted pork "griot", poultry with Creole sauce "poulet créole", rice...

Things To See in Haiti

Port-Au-Prince has a few landmarks, structures and statues, such as a large pair of hands holding the earth. Many of them are located near the airport. This city is the largest in Haiti and was the hardest hit by the earthquake. You will still see traces of the disaster,...

Money & Shopping in Haiti

The Haitian gourde is the currency of Haiti. In April 2011, the exchange rate was 40.85 gourdes = 1 US dollar. Although traders are required by law to quote prices in gourdes, almost everything is quoted in "dollars" - not US dollars, but Haitian dollars, which is equivalent to...

Festivals & Holidays in Haiti

The following days are public holidays in Haiti. Many Vodou holidays are also celebrated but are not considered public holidays. The two most important holidays for Haitian Americans are Haitian Independence Day and Haitian Flag Day. DateEnglish nameComments1 JanuaryNew Year's Day and Independence DayCommemorates the day in 1804 when Jean-Jacques Dessalines...

Language & Phrasebook in Haiti

The official languages of Haiti are French and Haitian Creole (Kreyòl Ayisien), a Creole language based on French, with 92% of its vocabulary derived from French and the rest mainly from African languages. Haitian Creole is the mother tongue of the masses, while French is the administrative language, although...

Culture Of Haiti

Haiti has a unique cultural identity made up of a broad mix of traditional French and African customs, mixed with significant contributions from Spanish and indigenous Taino culture. The country's customs are essentially a blend of the cultural beliefs of the various ethnic groups that have inhabited the island...

History Of Haiti

Haiti was inhabited by the Taino Indians when Christopher Columbus landed at the St Nicolas breakwater on 5 December 1492; see The Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Columbus named the island Hispaniola. The Taino were a branch of the Arawak Indians, a peaceful tribe that was weakened by the frequent...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Haiti

Stay Safe in Haiti WARNING: In 2012, Canada advised its citizens to "exercise extreme caution" due to high crime rates and the United States warned its citizens that "the ability of local authorities to respond to emergencies is limited and non-existent in some areas" as some visitors have been assaulted,...

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