Saturday, October 16, 2021

Canada

Canada is a nation in North America’s northern hemisphere. Its 10 provinces and three territories stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, spanning 9.98 million square kilometers (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second biggest nation in terms of total size and fourth largest in terms of land area. The border between Canada and the United States is the world’s longest land border. The bulk of the nation has very cold winters, while summers are pleasant in the south. Canada is a sparsely populated country, with the bulk of its geographical area covered by forest, tundra, and the Rocky Mountains. Around four-fifths of the country’s 36 million inhabitants reside in metropolitan areas along the southern border. Ottawa is the capital, while Toronto is the biggest city; other important cities include Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg, and Hamilton.

Canada has been inhabited by different Aboriginal peoples for millennia. British and French claims to the region began in the 16th century, with the French establishing the colony of Canada in 1537. As a result of numerous wars, the United Kingdom acquired and lost territory within British North America until it was left with what is now largely known as Canada in the late 18th century. On July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia united under the British North America Act to create the semi-autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This marked the beginning of the accretion of provinces and territories to the largely self-governing Dominion, eventually resulting in the 10 provinces and three territories that comprise contemporary Canada.

Canada gained near-total independence from the United Kingdom in 1931 with the Statute of Westminster, and complete sovereignty in 1982 with the Canada Act, which severed the last remaining legal links to the United Kingdom’s Parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy with a federal structure and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. At the federal level, the nation is officially multilingual. It is one of the world’s most ethnically and culturally diverse nations, the result of widespread immigration from a variety of other countries. Its sophisticated economy, which ranks tenth in the world, is based mostly on rich natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada’s long and complicated connection with the United States has had a profound effect on the economics and culture of the country.

Canada is a developed nation with the tenth greatest nominal per capita income and the ninth highest Human Development Index rating in the world. It is ranked among the top countries in the world in terms of government openness, civil rights, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. Canada is a Commonwealth realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations, a Francophonie member, and a member of a number of significant international and intergovernmental institutions and groupings, including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G8, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum.

Canada | Introduction

Canada is a country located in the northern half of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories stretch from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and north to the Arctic Ocean. With an area of 9.98 million square kilometres, it is the second largest country in the...

How To Travel To Canada

By air You will probably arrive in Canada by plane, most commonly in Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Calgary or Vancouver (the five largest cities, from east to west). Many other cities also have international airports, of which the following are particularly useful for visitors: Halifax, St. John's, Winnipeg, Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon,...

How To Travel Around Canada

Canada is huge - the second largest country in the world after Russia. This means that you will need several days to get to know even a part of the country. In fact, St. John's, Newfoundland, is geographically closer to London, UK, than to Vancouver. By air The best way to...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Canada

Citizens of the following countries do not require a visa to visit Canada for a stay of (usually) up to six months, provided they are not working or studying and the traveller has a passport valid for six months beyond the date of intended departure: Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda,...

Destinations in Canada

Regions in Canada Visiting Canada in one trip is a major undertaking. More than 7,200 kilometres separate St. John's, Newfoundland, from Victoria, British Columbia (about the same distance as between London and Riyadh or Tokyo and Calcutta). Driving from one end of the country to the other can take 7-10...

Weather & Climate in Canada

It is impossible to sum up Canada's climate in one easy-to-understand sentence, given the country's size and geographical diversity, but the phrase "frozen north" would be a reasonable first approximation. In most places, winters are harsh, similar to Russia. The most populous region, southern Ontario, has a milder climate,...

Accommodation & Hotels in Canada

Prices for accommodation in Canada vary considerably depending on the time and place. In most cities and many tourist areas, expect to pay $100 or more for a good hotel room. When inquiring, always ask if taxes are included; most of the time they are not and can often...

Things To See in Canada

Canada is a nation with many interesting places throughout the country. Each province and territory is unique and each contains its own special attractions. British Columbia has much to offer, including Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), an eco-paradise of untouched wilderness, and Vancouver Island. In the Yukon, you have the...

Things To Do in Canada

Canada is a country with a rich cultural heritage. Festivals and events are held in Canada every year to celebrate the multicultural landscape of this great nation. Each festival represents a unique cultural facet of Canada's diverse population. These festivals are easily identified by the time of year. In Spring In...

Money & Shopping in Canada

Currency in Canada Canada's currency is the Canadian dollar (symbol: $; correct abbreviation: CAD), often referred to simply as "dollar", "buck" (slang) or "loonie" (nickname for the $1 coin, now also a slang term for currency). One dollar ($) is made up of 100 cents (¢). Rising oil prices tend...

Food & Drinks in Canada

Food in Canada English Canadians may be puzzled when you ask them where to find Canadian food. English Canadian cuisine varies greatly from region to region. Specialities include maple syrup, Nanaimo bars (unbaked squares with chocolate, custard or vanilla butter filling and a breadcrumb base), butter tarts (tarts made with...

Festivals & Holidays in Canada

In Canada, the following national holidays are recognised and celebrated (there may be minor differences in some provinces): New Year's Day - 1 January Family Day - 3rd Monday in February (not celebrated in all provinces, known as Louis Riel Day in Manitoba, Islander Day in PEI). Good Friday...

Internet & Communications in Canada

Canada's communications infrastructure is what one would expect from an industrialised country. By phone Canada is part of the North American numbering plan (along with the United States and most of the Caribbean) and uses the country code +1. Area codes and local phone numbers follow the same format as in...

Language & Phrasebook in Canada

English and French are the only two official languages of Canada at the national level, although many other languages are spoken by immigrants or indigenous people in Canada. All federal government communications and services are required by law to be available in both official languages. However, each province is...

Traditions & Customs in Canada

Canada is a very multicultural country, especially in the big cities. A survey showed that about 50% of the population of Toronto (the largest city) was born outside Canada, and about 20% had at least one parent born outside the country. Immigrants came from all parts of the world,...

Culture Of Canada

Canada's culture is influenced by its wide range of nationalities, and measures to promote a 'just society' are protected by the Constitution. Canada has emphasised equality and inclusion for all its people. Multiculturalism is often cited as one of Canada's greatest achievements and a key distinguishing feature of Canadian...

History Of Canada

The main wave of prehistoric settlers is thought to have arrived in the Americas from northeast Asia via Alaska about 15,000 years ago, although the earliest migrants may have arrived about 30,000 years ago and the youngest about 5,000 years ago. The current theory for the spread of prehistoric...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Canada

Stay Safe in Canada Security in Canada is generally not a problem and a little common sense goes a long way. Even in big cities, violent crime is not a serious problem and very few people are armed. Violent crime should not worry the average traveller as it is usually...

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