London is England’s and the United Kingdom’s capital and most populated city. London has been a prominent town for two millennia, standing on the River Thames. The Romans dubbed it Londinium when they established it.
London is a worldwide leader in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, journalism, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is one of the world’s most important financial centers, with the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP, depending on the metric used.
London is the cultural capital of the globe. It possesses the world’s biggest city airport system in terms of passenger volume and is the world’s most visited city in terms of foreign arrivals.
More than 300 languages are spoken in Greater London, which has a varied population and culture.
The Tower of London, Kew Gardens, and the complex including the Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, and St Margaret’s Church are all World Heritage Sites in London.
The British Museum, National Gallery, Tate Modern, British Library, and 40 West End theatres are among the many museums, galleries, libraries, sports events, and other cultural institutions in London. The London Subterranean is the world’s oldest underground train system.
London – Info Card
|POPULATION :||City: 8,538,689 / Metro: 13,879,757|
|FOUNDED :||c.43 AD (as Londinium)|
|TIME ZONE :||GMT (UTC) Summer: BST (UTC+1)|
|RELIGION :||Christian 48.4%, Muslim 12.4%, Hindu 5.0%, Jewish 1.8%, Other 3.1 %, Undeclared 8.5%, No religion 20.7%|
|AREA :||Greater London 607 sq mi (1,572 km2) – Metro 3,236 sq mi (8,382 km2)|
|ELEVATION :||115 ft (35 m)|
|COORDINATES :||51°30′26″N 0°7′39″W|
|SEX RATIO :||• Male: 49.3%
• Female: 50.7%
|ETHNIC :||British 63.3% , Others (India, poland, ireland, Nigeria, Pakistan, Jamaica) 36.7%|
|AREA CODE :||9 area codes : 020, 01322, 01689, 01708, 01737, 01895, 01923, 01959, 01992|
|POSTAL CODE :||22 postcodes: E, EC, N, NW, SE, SW, W, WC, BR, CM, CR, DA, EN, HA, IG, KT, RM, SM, TN, TW, UB, WD|
|DIALING CODE :||+44 20|
Tourism in London
London is Europe’s most visited city, with over 16 million foreign visitors each year. Every year, 27 million people visit London for an overnight stay.
London is a megalopolis of people, ideas, and frantic energy. It is noisy, dynamic, and really cosmopolitan. London remains a worldwide metropolis of culture, music, education, fashion, politics, banking, and commerce, and is regarded as one of the world’s top “global cities.” London is the most visited city in the world by foreign travelers.
The city is one of the world’s main four fashion capitals, and official figures show that London is the world’s third-busiest film production center, hosts more live comedy than any other city, and has the world’s largest theatrical audience.
The West End entertainment sector in London is centered on Leicester Square, where London and international film premieres take place, and Piccadilly Circus, with its gigantic electronic advertising. The city’s theatrical district is here, as are numerous theaters, pubs, clubs, and restaurants, including the city’s Chinatown neighborhood (in Soho), and Covent Garden, an area with specialty stores, is just to the east.
Many museums, galleries, and other institutions may be found in London, many of which are free to enter and serve as both tourist attractions and research organizations.
London is one of the world’s main classical and popular music capitals, home to major record labels like EMI and Warner Music Group, as well as a slew of bands, artists, and industry insiders.
Three of London’s eight Royal Parks, especially Hyde Park and its neighbor Kensington Gardens in the west, and Regent’s Park in the north, are the city’s biggest parks. Sports are popular at Hyde Park, which also holds open-air concerts on occasion. Regent’s Park is home to London Zoo, the world’s oldest scientific zoo, as well as Madame Tussauds Wax Museum, a popular tourist attraction. Primrose Hill, at 256 feet (78 meters) in the northern portion of Regent’s Park, is a famous site for viewing the city skyline.
Football is London’s most popular sport, with fourteen League football teams.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
London has been without a centrally situated tourist information center since the closing of the Britain and London Visitor Centre in December 2011 owing to government cost-cutting.
The City of London Information Facility is presently the last unbiased, face-to-face source of visitor information in Central London, since it is the only existing information centre in any of the Central London boroughs. It is situated in St. Paul’s Churchyard, opposite to St. Paul’s Cathedral, and is open Monday through Saturday from 09.30-17.30, and Sunday from 10.00-16.00. It is closed on Christmas Day and Boxing Day.
There is no tourist information office for the entirety of the United Kingdom or England.
Climate of London
Despite its undeserved reputation for unpredictability, London has a dry and pleasant climate on average. Rain falls on one out of every three days on average, and it usually only lasts a few hours. For many weeks in certain years, such as 2012, there was no rain.
Because to the Gulf Stream and the urban heat effect, London has a moderate winter compared to adjacent continental European cities. In December and January, the average daily maximum temperature is 8°C (46°F). In December, the daylight hours are limited, with darkness falling around 16:00.
Snow does fall a few times a year, although it is seldom heavy (a few years being exceptions such as the winters of 2009 and 2010, with temperatures dipping down to sub-zeros regularly). As witnessed towards the end of 2010, snow in London may be devastating. Trains will cease operating, airports will see substantial delays, and the mail service will grind to a standstill with only 7 cm (3 in) of snow. London is a city that struggles with snow; shovels and ploughs will not be able to clear pathways, staircases, or streets. The roads will be salted/gritted, but they will stay slippery and coated with snow/slush until the sun melts it away. The absence of significant snow-clearing infrastructure is attributable to the city’s infrequent snowfall.
Summer is perhaps the greatest time to visit because of the long daylight hours and warm temperatures. In July and August, the average daily maximum temperature is approximately 24°C (75°F). The maximum temperature recorded since 2000 was 38°C (100°F) in August. This implies that throughout the summer, London may be hot and humid for many days. In addition, due to the urban heat effect, it might seem damp and muggy at night.
Regardless of the season, London’s weather is notoriously fickle. Even in the summer, cold temperatures and heavy rain might occur.
Geography of London
Greater London has a total area of 1,583 square kilometers (611 square miles), a population of 7,172,036 people in 2001, and a population density of 4,542 people per square kilometer (11,760/sq mi). The London Metropolitan Region, also known as the London Metropolitan Agglomeration, has a total area of 8,382 square kilometers (3,236 square miles), a population of 13,709,000, and a population density of 1,510 individuals per square kilometer (3,900/sq mi). Modern London is built on the Thames, the city’s principal topographical feature, a navigable river that runs from the south-west to the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain encircled by gently sloping hills such as Parliament Hill, Addington Hills, and Primrose Hill. The Thames was formerly a much wider, shallower river with large marshlands; at high tide, its banks were five times wider than they are now.
Economy of London
London contributes around 20% of the UK’s GDP, while the London metropolitan area’s economy—the biggest in Europe—generates approximately 30% of the UK’s GDP.
As the most significant center for international finance, London is one of the world’s preeminent financial cities.
Finance is London’s biggest sector, and its financial exports contribute significantly to the UK’s balance of payments. Until mid-2007, around 325,000 individuals worked in financial services in London. London has the most international banks of any city in the world, with over 480. Over 85 percent (3.2 million) of Greater London’s employed population works in the service industry. London’s economy was impacted by the Late-2000s financial crisis due to its major worldwide position. However, by 2010, the City had rebounded; it had developed new regulatory authorities, regained lost territory, and re-established London’s economic supremacy.
The Bank of England, the London Stock Exchange, and the Lloyd’s of London insurance market are all located in the City of London. Central London is home to the headquarters of more than half of the UK’s top 100 listed firms and more than 100 of Europe’s 500 biggest corporations.
Media firms, like professional services, are concentrated in London, and the media distribution industry is the city’s second most competitive sector. The BBC is a major employer, and other broadcasters have offices throughout the City. London is the home of several national newspapers. London is a significant retail center, having the greatest non-food retail sales of any city in the world in 2010, with a total expenditure of over £64.2 billion.
The Port of London is the second-largest in the United Kingdom, with 45 million tonnes of goods handled each year.
The City of London, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington, and Lambeth & Southwark are the five main commercial areas of London. Looking at the respective quantities of office space is one approach to obtain an indication of their relative importance: Greater London has 27 million m2 of office space in 2001, with the City having the highest, at 8 million m2. London features some of the world’s most expensive real estate prices.
Internet, Communication in London
Unfortunately, free public wifi connection is not well-known in London, despite the fact that the number of hotspots is increasing.
Many cafés and chain restaurants provide free WiFi, including McDonald’s, Pret A Manger, JD Wetherspoon pubs, Costa Coffee, Caffe Nero, and Starbucks.