Tajikistan, formally the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked nation in Central Asia with a population of about 8 million people in 2013 and an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi). It is bounded to the south by Afghanistan, to the west by Uzbekistan, to the north by Kyrgyzstan, and to the east by China. Pakistan is located to the south and is divided by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Tajik people’s traditional homelands comprised modern-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan.
Tajikistan’s territory was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Neolithic and Bronze Age city of Sarazm, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of various faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Islam. Several empires and dynasties have controlled the region, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, and Russian Empire. Tajikistan gained independence in 1991 as a consequence of the disintegration of the Soviet Union. From 1992 to 1997, a civil war raged nearly soon after independence. Since the war’s conclusion, the country’s economy has grown thanks to newly created political stability and international assistance.
Tajikistan is a four-provincial presidential republic. Tajiks make up the majority of Tajikistan’s 8 million inhabitants and speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). As a second language, many Tajiks speak Russiana. More than 90% of the country is covered by mountains. It has a transition economy that is heavily reliant on remittances, aluminum manufacturing, and cotton production.