Pakistan, formally known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic situated at the crossroads of South and West Asia. It is the sixth-most populated nation in the world, with a population of more than 200 million people. It is the world’s 36th biggest nation in terms of land area, having a size of 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometer (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south, and is bounded to the east by India, to the west by Afghanistan, to the southwest by Iran, and to the far northeast by China. It is divided from Tajikistan in the north by Afghanistan’s narrow Wakhan Corridor, and it also has a sea border with Oman.
The territory that is now Pakistan is regarded as a cradle of civilization, having previously been home to several ancient cultures, including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and later being home to kingdoms ruled by people of various faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans, and Sikhs. The Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire, and the British Empire have all reigned over the region.
Pakistan is unusual among Muslim nations in that it is the only one that was founded in the name of Islam. Pakistan was established in 1947 as an independent country for Muslims from the Subcontinent’s east and west, where there was a Muslim majority, as a consequence of the Pakistan Movement headed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent’s fight for independence. Pakistan, which was formerly a dominion, adopted a new constitution in 1956, establishing an Islamic republic. A civil war in 1971 culminated in East Pakistan seceding to form the new nation of Bangladesh.
Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic that is divided into four provinces and four federal areas. It is a nation with a varied ethnic and linguistic population, as well as a diverse landscape and fauna. Pakistan is a regional and medium power with the world’s seventh biggest standing military forces. It is also a nuclear power and a proclaimed nuclear-weapons state, the only one in the Muslim world and the second in South Asia. It has a semi-industrialized economy with a well-integrated agricultural sector; its economy is the world’s 26th biggest in terms of buying power and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP; and it is also classified as one of the world’s rising and growth-leading countries.
Pakistan’s post-independence history has been marked by periods of military dictatorship, political instability, and wars with neighboring India. The nation is still dealing with difficult issues like as overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption. Despite these constraints, Pakistan has strategic assets and development potential, and it has achieved significant progress in decreasing poverty, ranking second in South Asia in terms of headcount poverty. The country’s affluent middle class, which is now the 18th biggest in the world, has lately expanded rapidly. Pakistan’s stock exchange is Asia’s best-performing stock market, and it is included in the MSCI’s developing markets index as of 2016. It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven Economies, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ECO, UfC, D8, Cairns Group, Kyoto Protocol, ICCPR, RCD, UNCHR, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Group of Eleven, CPFTA, Group of 24, the G20 developing nations, ECOSOC, SAARC, and CERN.