Bangalore, also known as Bengaluru, is the capital of Karnataka, an Indian state. It has an estimated population of 8.42 million and a metropolitan population of 8.52 million, making it India’s third most populated city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration. Bangalore, located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at a height of about 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, is recognized for its nice temperature all year. It has the greatest elevation of any of India’s major cities.
The current territory of Bangalore was dominated by a series of South Indian kingdoms, including the Western Gangas, Cholas, and Hoysalas, until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowd — a feudal lord under the Vijayanagara Empire – erected a mud fort regarded to be the foundation of contemporary Bangalore. The Marths invaded and controlled Bangalore for about 50 years until the Mughals seized and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty in 1638. Following their victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British took possession of the city and restored administrative power to the Maharaja of Mysore. The ancient city grew up under the control of the Maharaja of Mysore and became the capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which functioned as a nominally sovereign state of the British Raj. The British relocated their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the ancient city, in 1809, and a town developed up around it, ruled as part of British India. Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State after India’s independence in 1947, and it remained so when the new Indian state of Karnataka was founded in 1956. In 1949, Bangalore’s two urban settlements – city and cantonment – combined to form a single urban center. Bengalru, the city’s existing Kannada name, was designated the official name in 2006.
Bangalore is recognized as the “Silicon Valley of India” (or “IT capital of India”) because it is the country’s biggest exporter of information technology (IT). The city is home to the headquarters of Indian technical firms ISRO, Infosys, and Wipro. Bangalore is India’s second fastest-growing metropolitan metropolis, with a diversified population. Many educational and research institutions in India call it home, including the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), the Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), the National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, the National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), the National Law School of India University (NLSIU), and the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). The city is home to a number of state-owned aerospace and defense companies, including Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics, and National Aerospace Laboratories. The Kannada film industry is also based in the city. Bangalore, being a rising metropolitan metropolis in a developing nation, has significant pollution as well as other logistical and socioeconomic issues. Bangalore ranks fourth in India in terms of total GDP contribution, behind Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata, with a GDP of $83 billion.