The inscription “Mahasthan Brahmi,” which goes back to the 3rd century BC. Christ, is Bangladesh’s earliest evidence of writing. Sanskrit literature thrived in the area under the Gupta Empire. In the 11th century, Sanskrit and Praguri combined to become Bengali. Bengali literature dates back millennia. The Charapapods are among of Bengali poetry’s oldest examples. Many Bengali Muslim authors have been influenced by Sufi spiritism. Medieval Bengali authors were inspired by Arabic and Persian writings during the Sultan’s reign in Bengal. Syed Alaol is a well-known poet and translator who works in the secular field. Chandidas are a kind of popular literature that developed in Bangladesh during the Middle Ages. Modern Bengali literature, including novels, short tales, and science fiction, was influenced by the Bengal Renaissance. Rabindranath Tagore is known as the Bengal Shakespeare and was the first Nobel Prize winner in Literature. Kazi Nazrul Islam is a revolutionary poet who has renounced colonialism and fascism in a spiritual revolt. Begum Roquea, with his early work on female science fiction, was a pioneer of Bengali literature in English. Michael Maddusdan Dut and Sarat Chandra Chadadhdhi are two more Renaissance figures.
Syed Mujtaba Ali, a well-known Bengali writer, is renowned for his global outlook. In Bangladesh, Humeyung Ahmed is a well-known author of contemporary magnet realism and science fiction. For many years, Shamsur Rahman has been a poet’s poet in Bangladesh. Yasimudin is well-known for his pastoral poetry. Farrukh Ahmed, Sufi Kamal, Kaiser Hack, and Nermalendou Gwon are prominent names in Bangladeshi modern poetry. Mir Mosharraf Hossain, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Syed Waliullah, and Shahidullah Kaiser are famous Bangladeshi novelists. Shawkat Osman, Selina Hossain, Taslima Nasrin, Haripada Datha, Razia Khan, Anisul Hoque, Al Mahmoud, Bipradash Barua, Tahmima Anam, Neamat Imam, Monica Ali, and Zia Haider Rahman are among the members of the team. Many Bangladeshi authors are known for their short tales, including Mohammed Zafar Ikabal, K. Anis Ahmed, and Farah Gusnadi.
The Bangla Academy’s annual Ekushey Book Fair and the Dhaka Literary Festival are two of South Asia’s biggest literary events.
Women in Bangladesh
Despite the fact that several women have occupied significant political posts in Bangladesh since 2015, the country’s women continue to be oppressed by a patriarchal social system that is rife with violence. In the 1980s, women’s wages were low, often between 20 and 30 percent of men’s. While women in India and Pakistan are becoming less engaged in the work market as their education levels rise, the trend in Bangladesh is the opposite.
Feminism has a lengthy history in Bengal, going back to the nineteenth century. Roquia Sakhawat Hussain and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani were instrumental in the liberation of Bengali purebred Muslim women and the advancement of girls’ education. During the British Raj, many women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly. Begum was the first women’s magazine to be launched in 1948. In Bengal, eastern Pakistan, women had a significant part in civil society.
Bangladesh has one of the highest rates of female involvement in the Muslim world, at 59 percent. In Bangladesh’s garment sector, women hold the majority of blue occupations. Women’s primary professions in Bangladesh include agriculture, social services, health, and education, although white-collar employment is gradually increasing.
Bangladesh’s architectural traditions date back more than 2,500 years. Bengal’s terracotta architecture is a unique characteristic. During the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art built enormous buildings like the Somapura Mahavihara, Bengali pre-Islamic architecture reached its pinnacle. When indigenous terracotta techniques impacted the building of medieval mosques under the Sultanate of Bengal, Islamic architecture started to evolve. The undivided Adina Mosque of Bengal was the biggest mosque ever constructed on the Indian subcontinent.
The Sixty Dome mosque is a superb example of Turkish-Bengali architecture and was the biggest medieval mosque constructed in Bangladesh. When Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire, local architecture was displaced, and the Mughal style impacted the development of urban dwellings. The architecture of late Hindu temples may be seen in the Temple of Kantajew and the Temple of Dhakeshwari. During the British era, the Indo-Saracenic Renaissance, which was based on Indo-Islamic influences, thrived. The Ahsan Manzil, Tajhat Palace, Dighapatia Palace, Puthia Rajbari, and Natore Rajbari are among the many Indo-Saracenic palaces and country homes constructed by Bangladesh’s zamindar aristocracy.
In the bungalow, Bengali vernacular architecture shines out as a pioneer. Bangladeshi villages are made up of thatched homes constructed of natural materials including mud, straw, wood, and bamboo. In contemporary times, tin bungalows are becoming more common in communities.
In Bangladesh, Muzharul Islam was a pioneer of modern architecture. His many achievements have shaped the country’s contemporary architectural profession. In ancient East Pakistan, Islam attracted some of the world’s most renowned architects, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey, and Konstantinos Doxiadis. The National Parliament Complex in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar was designed by Louis Kahn. Kahn’s colossal designs are regarded one of the twentieth century’s masterpieces, combining the regional beauty of red brick, his own brutalism of marble and concrete, and the use of lakes to reflect Bengali topography. In recent years, award-winning architects like as Rafiq Azam have influenced the direction of modern architecture by incorporating elements from the works of Islam and Kahn.
Bangladeshi theater includes several genres and has a long history dating back to the 4th century AD. Narrative forms, songs and dance forms, supra-personae forms, scroll paintings, puppet theater, and processional forms are all included. The most popular type of popular Bengali theater is jatra. Bangladesh’s dance traditions include indigenous tribal and Bengali dances, as well as classical Indian dances such as Kathak, Odissi, and Manipuri dances.
Bangladeshi music depicts the mysterious Baul culture, which has been designated by UNESCO as a masterpiece of intangible cultural heritage. Gombhira, Bhatiali, and Bhawaiya are among the many musical traditions based on lyrics that differ from area to region. The ektara, a single-stringed instrument, is used to accompany folk music. Dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla are among the other instruments. Tagore and Nazrul geeti’s songs are examples of traditional Bengali music. Bangladesh has a long history of Indian classical music, which includes the sitar, tabla, sarod, and santoor, among other instruments.
Even in painting, sculpture, and architecture, Bangladesh boasts a rich legacy of old Indian and Islamic art. Bengali art is known for its terracotta sculptures. Bengal inspired Chinese, Japanese, Southeast Asian, and Tibetan art. The Pala-Sena school is often regarded as the pinnacle of Bengali art. Persian art had a significant impact on Islamic medieval art, especially in building, gardening, and miniature painting. Bengali artistic silk and muslin textiles, notably the renowned Jamdani muslin, were supported by the Moghul emperors. The Nawabs of Bengal were renowned for their arrogance when it came to ivory production.
Bangladeshi contemporary art started with the works of famous painter Zainul Abedin. SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Quamrul Hassan, Qayyum Chowdhury, and Kanak Chanpa Chakma are among the other famous artists. Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were among the earliest contemporary sculptors. The country boasts a thriving contemporary art culture that has garnered worldwide acclaim. The Dhaka Art Summit is a biennial exhibition that brings artwork from Bangladesh to a global audience.
Bangladeshi martial arts arose in communities where zamindars defended their estates with huge private armies. Bengali martial arts are divided into two categories: Lathi khela and Boli khela.
The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old patchwork embroidery technique believed to be indigenous to East Bengal (Bangladesh). Bangladeshi women wear the sari as their national clothing. Mughal Dhaka was known for manufacturing the finest muslin saris, notably the renowned Dhakai and Jamdani, whose fabric is included on the UNESCO list of masterpieces of mankind’s intangible cultural heritage. Rajshahi silk is also produced in Bangladesh. Bangladeshi ladies also like the Shalwar Kameez. Some ladies may be spotted wearing western clothes in metropolitan areas. The kurta and sherwani are the national garments of Bangladeshi males. Bengali guys wear dungi and dhoti in casual situations. Between 60 and 65 percent of the demand for clothes is met by the handloom sector. Men in the nation often wear tailored suits and ties in addition to ethnic dress, and they are popular in workplaces, schools, and social gatherings.
In the ever-changing fashion world, the Bengali ethnic wear sector has done very well. Aarong, a South Asian ethnic apparel store, is one of the most successful. The growth of Bangladesh’s textile sector, which supplies major international brands, has boosted local manufacturing and selling of contemporary Western clothes, and the country today boasts many rapidly growing local brands including Westecs and Yellow. Bangladesh is the world’s second-largest exporter of garments.
Bibi Russell, a Bangladeshi fashion designer, is known throughout the world for her “Fashion for Development” presentations.
Bangladeshi cuisine features white rice, as well as a variety of vegetables and lentils. Bengal bryans, Pulaos, and Kichiris are all rice-based dishes. Bangladeshi cuisine makes extensive use of sour sauce, gou, sunflower oil, and lark. Bengali cuisine relies heavily on fish as a protein source. The national fish of Bangladesh, Hilsa, is very popular. Cockroaches, sea fish, catfish, tilapia, and baramundi are among the other fish. Fish eggs are a treat for gourmets. Seafood, particularly lobster, prawns, and dried fish, plays a significant role in Bengali cuisine. Meat is consumed in the form of chicken, beef, lamb, caramel, duck, and chicken. Mezban Holidays, a traditional custom in Chittagong, include spicy veal curry. Lemon juice is used to marinade foods in Silch. Bamboo shoots may be found in abundance in tribal highland areas. Bangladeshi desserts include Roshogolla, Roshomalai, Chomchom, Mishti Doi, and Kalojaam, which are all unique to Bangladesh. Cookies are a kind of baked delicacy that is traditionally made with rice or fruit. During religious festivals, halva is served. The major native breads are naan, paratha, luchi, and bakarkhani. As a welcome gesture, visitors are offered black tea. In Bangladesh, kebabs are extremely popular, particularly kebabs, chicken teak, and shashlik.
Bangladesh has a culinary history with West Bengal, a neighboring Indian state. However, there are significant distinctions between the two areas. Meat consumption is greater in Bangladesh’s Muslim majority, whereas vegetarianism is more prevalent in West Bengal’s Hindu majority. In many Western nations, particularly the United Kingdom, the Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant sector.
The new Bengali year, Pohela Boishakh, is the most important holiday in Bengali culture, with extensive celebrations. Only Pohela Boishakh, the most important event in Bangladesh, arrives with no expectations (specific religious identity, gift culture, etc.). Unlike other celebrations such as Eid al-Fitr, when lavish attire has become the standard, or Christmas, where giving presents has become an important element of the holiday, Pohela Boishakh seeks to honor Bengal’s humble rural origins. As a consequence, more individuals may take part in the celebrations without having to disclose their social position, religion, or financial status. Nabonno and Poush Parbon, both Bengali harvest celebrations, are two more traditional events.
Cricket is one of Bangladesh’s most popular sports, followed by football. In 1999, the National Cricket Team competed in its inaugural Cricket World Cup, and the following year, it was granted elite status. But they’ve battled hard thus far, winning just ten Tests: eight against Zimbabwe in 2005, five in 2006, and three in 2014, with the other two earning a 2-0 victory over the West Indies in 2009.
In One Day International cricket, the side has enjoyed greater success. In July 2010, they achieved their first victory against England in any type of competition. They defeated New Zealand for the first time later that year. They won a five-game ODI series against a West Indian national side at home at the end of 2012. Bangladesh successfully hosted the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup, which was co-hosted by India and Sri Lanka. The Asian Cup was held in the nation in 2012. The squad beat India and Sri Lanka, but fell short against Pakistan in the final game. It was, however, the first time Bangladesh had progressed to the final of a major cricket event. They participated in the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, where they won gold in the inaugural Asian Games cricket event, defeating Afghanistan. In all three cricket forms, Bangladeshi cricketer Sakib Al Hasan is rated first in the CIC multi-discipline rating.
Kabaddi is a prominent sport in Bangladesh and is regarded as the national sport. Field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, basketball, volleyball, chess, shooting, and fishing are also popular sports. 42 distinct sports federations are governed by the National Sports Council.
In the game of chess, Bangladesh boasts five notable masters. Niaz Murshed was the first outstanding instructor in South Asia among them. Margarita Mamun, a Russian rhythmic gymnast of Bangladeshi descent, won the world championships in 2013 and 2014.