Myanmar, formally the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and often referred to as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia, sharing borders with Bangladesh, India, China, Laos, and Thailand. Myanmar’s entire land area of 1,930 kilometers (1,200 miles) is dominated by an unbroken coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country’s 2014 census showed a much lower population than anticipated, with 51 million individuals registered. Myanmar has a total land area of 676,578 square kilometers (261,227 square miles). Naypyidaw is the capital, while Yangon is the biggest city (Rangoon).
Myanmar’s oldest civilizations comprised Pyu-speaking city states in Upper Burma that spoke Tibetan and Burmese, as well as Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. The Bamar settled in the Upper Irrawaddy Valley in the ninth century, and after the foundation of Pagano Kingdom in the early 1050s, the Theravada language, culture, and Buddhism became more prominent in Burma. The pagan empire was destroyed by Mongol invasions, and many states sprang up throughout the conflict. In the sixteenth century, after being unified by the Taungoo dynasty, the nation briefly became the greatest empire in Southeast Asia’s history. In the early nineteenth century, the Konbaung dynasty governed a territory that encompassed current Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam. Myanmar was captured by the British in the nineteenth century after three Anglo-Burmese wars, and the nation became a British colony. Myanmar established an independent country in 1948, first as a democratic state, then as a military dictatorship after a coup in 1962.
For the majority of the nation’s independence years, the country was consumed by widespread ethnic conflict, with the numerous Burmese ethnic groups engaged in one of the world’s longest continuous civil conflicts. Meanwhile, the United Nations and a number of other groups have condemned the country’s persistent and systemic human rights abuses. In 2011, after the 2010 general elections, the military junta was formally disbanded and a nominally civilian administration was established. While former military officials retain tremendous influence in the nation, the Burmese army has begun to cede control of the government. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners, benefited the country’s human rights record and foreign relations, resulting in trade facilitation measures and other economic penalties. He continues, however, to criticize the government’s handling of the Rohingya Muslim minority and its inadequate reaction to religious conflicts. Aung San Suu Kyi’s party gained a majority in both houses at the historic 2015 elections.
Myanmar is a nation rich in jade and jewels, as well as oil, natural gas, and other minerals. Its nominal GDP was 56.7 billion US dollars in 2013, while its PPP GDP was 221.5 billion US dollars. Myanmar has one of the world’s greatest economic disparities, owing to the fact that a significant portion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military regime. Myanmar has a low level of human development in 2013, ranking 150th out of 187 nations on the Human Development Index (HDI).
The government has encouraged tourism in Myanmar since 1992; nevertheless, according to the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board, fewer than 270,000 visitors visited the nation in 2006. Myanmar’s Minister of Hotels and Tourist, Saw Lwin, has said that the government gets a major portion of income from commercial tourism services.
Major cities such as Yangon and Mandalay, as well as religious sites in Mon, Pindaya, Bago, and Hpa-An, nature trails in Inle Lake, Kengtung, Putao, Pyin Oo Lwin, ancient cities such as Bagan and Mrauk-U, and beaches in Nabule, Ngapali, Ngwe-Saung, and Mergui, are among Myanmar’s most popular tourist destinations. However, most of the nation is off-limits to visitors, and contacts between foreigners and Myanmarese citizens, particularly in border regions, are closely monitored by the authorities. They are forbidden from discussing politics with foreigners, and the Myanmar Tourist Board issued an order in 2001 directing local officials to safeguard visitors and prevent “unnecessary interactions” between foreigners and Burmese.
Air travel seems to be the most frequent mode of entry into the nation. It’s difficult to go into Myanmar. “There are no buses or trains connecting Myanmar to another nation, but Canadians may go by vehicle or motorcycle.” “Foreigners cannot go to or leave Myanmar by water or river,” the report adds. The border between Ruili (China) and Mu-soi, the border between Htee Kee (Myanmar) and Phu Nam Ron (Thailand), the most direct route between Dawei and Kanchanaburi, and the border between Myawaddy (Myanmar) and Mae Sot are among the few border crossings that allow private cars to pass (Thailand). Since 2013, at least one tourist business has been able to effectively trade land routes across these boundaries. “You can cross to Tachileik from Mae Sai (Thailand), but you can only go to Kengtung; those in Thailand with a visa may cross to Kawthaung.” However, he is unable to go farther into Myanmar.
Most nations have flights, but direct flights are mostly restricted to Thai carriers and other ASEAN countries. “There were just 15 foreign airlines in the past,” Eleven magazine reports, “and a growing number of airlines began operating direct flights from Japan, Qatar, Taiwan, South Korea, Germany, and Singapore.” According to Eleven, of Eleven Media Group, “Nok Air and Business Carriers headquartered in Thailand and Tiger Airline located in Singapore” are among the Thai and Asian airlines that will expand in September 2013.
Myanmar’s main ethnic group is the Bamar, from whom the country’s original English name, Burma, is derived. Aside from Bamar, Myanmar is home to a diverse range of ethnic groups and nations, each with its own culture and language. Myanmar is home to Chinese and ethnic Indians whose ancestors immigrated to Myanmar during the more apparent colonial era in the cities of Yangon and Mandalay, in addition to indigenous ethnic minorities. Myanmar’s regions are dominated by Bamar, whereas the states are inhabited by ethnic minorities.
Several international allegations of brutality against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, on the Bangladesh border, have been made against the government in recent years. They are not recognized as Myanmar nationals by the government, who claims they are Bangladeshis. They were forced to escape to Bangladesh in huge numbers, where they are treated as foreigners, and many have died attempting to find shelter and employment in Malaysia. It is unclear how the NLD intends to address this issue.
Most Burmese people are extremely friendly and courteous, and will go out of their way to make you feel at ease in their nation.
Myanmar is divided into three seasons. The hottest months are typically March and April. The rainy season, which runs from May through October, brings cooler temperatures. The cold season, which runs from November to February, is the busiest time for tourists. During the hot season, temperatures in Yangon can reach 36 degrees Celsius, while during the cold season, mid-day temperatures are generally more bearable at 32 degrees Celsius, with night temperatures falling around 19 degrees Celsius. C. is slightly cooler during the cold season, with temperatures falling to 13 degrees Celsius, while temperatures during the hot season can reach 37 degrees Celsius. Lower Burma, the area surrounding Yangon, is the driest of Myanmar, receiving more than rain in general (around Mandalay).
Winter temperatures in hilly regions, such as Inle Lake and Pyin U Lwin, may dip below 10 ° C at night, although daytime temperatures are usually comfortable. Even in the summer, temperatures seldom get beyond 32 degrees Celsius. Snow-capped mountains may always be seen near the Indian border in Kachin State.
Myanmar covers 678,500 square kilometers in total (262,000 square miles). It is located between 9 and 29 degrees north latitude and 92 and 102 degrees east longitude. Myanmar has 14 states and regions, 67 districts, 330 municipalities, 64 sub-municipalities, 377 cities, 2.914 neighborhoods, 14,220 village districts, and 68,290 villages, as of February 2011.
Burma is bordered on the north by Bangladesh’s Chittagong Division and India’s Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh. The Tibet Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province share a 2,185-kilometer northern and northeastern boundary with the Sino-Burmese border (1,358 miles). To the southeast, it shares a border with Laos and Thailand. Burma’s neighboring coastlines run for 1,930 kilometers (1200 miles) along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea to the southwest and south, making about a quarter of the country’s entire perimeter.
The Hengduan Mountains form the Chinese border to the north. The highest peak in Myanmar is Hkakabo Razi, which is situated in the Kachin state at an elevation of 5881 meters (19,295 feet). Rakhine Yoma, Bago Yoma, Shan Hills, and Tenasserim Hills are among the many mountains in Myanmar, which stretch from the north to the south of the Himalayas.
Myanmar’s three river systems, the Irrawaddy, Salween (Thanlwin), and Sittaung, are divided by mountain ranges. The Irrawaddy River flows into the Gulf of Martaban, Myanmar’s longest river at approximately 2,178 kilometers (1,348 miles). The fertile plains are found between mountain ranges and valleys. The Irrawaddy Valley, which lies between Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau, is home to the bulk of Myanmar’s people.
Myanmar’s sluggish economic development has helped to preserve most of the country’s natural environment and ecosystems. Myanmar’s forests, which include thick tropical vegetation and valuable teak, encompass less than 49 percent of the nation and include acacia, bamboo, steel wool, and Magnolia champaca. Rubber, coconut, and betel palm were all introduced. Oak, pine, and various rhododendrons dominate most of the terrain in the northern highlands.
Since the new Forest Act of 1995 took effect, intensive logging has resulted in a substantial reduction in forest acreage and animal habitat. The terrain near the shore produces a wide range of tropical fruits and was originally covered in mangroves, but much of the protecting mangroves have vanished. Vegetation is sparse and unstable throughout most of central Myanmar (dry zone).
Myanmar is devoid of typical forest creatures, including tigers and leopards. Rhinos, wild buffaloes, wild boars, deer, antelopes, and elephants live at the top of Myanmar, where they are tamed or raised in captivity for use as working animals, particularly in the forestry sector. Gibbons and monkeys, as well as flying foxes and tapirs, are among the smallest animals. There are around 800 different kinds of birds, including parrots, peacocks, pheasants, crows, herons, and paddybirds. Crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons, and turtles are all reptiles. Hundreds of species of freshwater fish are varied, plentiful, and essential food sources.
Myanmar’s population is estimated to be 51,419,420 people, according to preliminary Census 2014 data. This number includes approximately 1,206,353 individuals who were not included in areas of northern Rakhine State, Kachin State, and Kayin State. These statistics do not include those who were abroad of the nation at the time of the census. More over 600,000 Myanmar migrant laborers are registered in Thailand, with millions more working illegally. Burmese migrant laborers make about 80 percent of Thailand’s migrant workforce. The population density is 76 people per square kilometer (200 people per square mile), making it one of Southeast Asia’s lowest.
Since 2011, Myanmar’s fertility rate has been 2.23, which is somewhat higher than the replacement level and low when compared to other South Asian nations with comparable economic standing, such as Cambodia (3.18), and Laos (4.41). Despite the lack of a national population strategy, fertility fell dramatically, from 4.7 children per woman in 1983 to 2.4 in 2001. In metropolitan regions, the fertility rate is considerably lower.
The high proportion of single women and single women of childbearing age, with 25.9% of women aged 30 to 34 and 33.1 percent of men and women aged 25 to 34, is attributed to several factors, including extreme delays in marriage (almost unprecedented in developing countries in the region), the prevalence of illegal abortions, and the relatively rapid decline in fertility.
These models are influenced by a variety of cultural and economic factors. The first is financial hardship, which is evident in the postponement of marriage and family formation; in Myanmar, the average age of marriage is 27.5 years for males and 26.4 years for women. The second issue is celibacy’s social acceptance among Burmese, who are mostly Buddhist and see celibacy as a method of spiritual growth.
Myanmar has a varied ethnic population. The federal government recognizes 135 distinct ethnic groups. Some, like the Rohingya, are not recognized by the government. Although it is very difficult to verify this claim, Myanmar has at least 108 ethno-linguistic groups, the majority of which are Tibeto-Burman peoples, but there are also substantial numbers of Tai-Kadai, Hmong, and Austro-Asian peoples ( Mon-Khmer)
The Bamar make up about 68 percent of the population. Shan make up 10% of the population. The Kayin account for 7% of the population. Rakhine residents make about 4% of the total population. Overseas Chinese make up approximately 3% of the population. Ethnic minorities in Myanmar prefer the term “ethnic nationality” over “ethnic minority” because the word “minority” increases their feeling of fear about what is often characterized as proliferation and dominance “Burmanización” Culture Bamar cultures dominant minority
My, who make about 2% of the population, is ethnolinguistically linked to Khmers. Overseas Indians make about 2% of the population. Other ethnic minorities include Kachin, Chin, Rohingya, Anglo-Indian, Gurkha, Nepalese, and others. Anglo-Burmese are included in this category. Once a significant and powerful group, it departed the Anglo-Burmese nation in a steady stream beginning in 1958, mostly in Australia and the United Kingdom. Myanmar is home to an estimated 52,000 Anglo-Burmese. In 2009, 110,000 Burmese refugees were residing in Thailand’s refugee camps.
There are refugee camps along the borders of India, Bangladesh, and Thailand, as well as thousands in Malaysia. According to conservative estimates, there are about 295,800 Myanmar refugees, the most majority of them are Rohingya, Karens, and Karennis, primarily near the Thai-Myanmar border. There are nine permanent refugee camps along the Thai-Myanmar border, the majority of which were established in the mid-1980s, with refugee camps overseen by the Thailand-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC). More than 55,000 Burmese refugees have been resettled in the United States since 2006.
Persecution of Burmese Indians, Burmese Chinese, and other ethnic groups after General Ne Win’s military takeover in 1962 resulted in the expulsion or departure of 300,000 people. They left to avoid the racial discrimination and nationalization of all private businesses perpetrated by Anglo-Burmese in 1964, when they departed the country or changed their names and mingled with Burmese society in general.
A large number of Rohingya Muslims have left Myanmar. Following Operation King Dragon in Arakan, many people fled to neighboring Bangladesh, including 200,000 in 1978. In 1991, there were just 250,000 left.
Myanmar is home to a diverse range of religious traditions. Religious structures and organizations have existed for a long time. Festivals may be held on a grand scale. Christians and Muslims, on the other hand, suffer religious persecution, and it is difficult, if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the military or acquire government positions, the country’s primary routes to success. Persecution and assaults on civilians are especially prevalent in eastern Myanmar, where over 3,000 villages have been demolished in the last decade. Over the past two decades, more than 200,000 Muslims have migrated to Bangladesh to avoid persecution.
Buddhism is practiced by the vast majority of the people, with estimates ranging from 80 to 89 percent. According to the 2014 Myanmar census, 87.9 percent of the population is Buddhist. Theravada Buddhism is the most common. Other faiths are practiced quite freely, with the noteworthy exception of certain religious minorities, including as Rohingyas, who are refused citizenship and regarded as illegal immigrants, and Christians in Chin State.
According to the 2014 census, 6.2 percent of the population is Christian, 4.3 percent is Muslim, 0.8 percent follows tribal faiths, 0.5 percent is Hindu, 0.2 percent follows other religions, and 0.1 percent does not follow any religion. According to Pew Research Center estimates from 2010, 7 percent of the population is Christian, 4 percent is Muslim, 1 percent has traditional animist beliefs, and 2 percent practices other faiths such as Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism, and East Asian religions. Jehovah’s Witnesses have been operating since 1914, with about 80 congregations throughout the nation and a branch in Yangon that is published in 16 languages. Rangoon’s tiny Jewish community has a synagogue but no permanent rabbi to conduct services.
Although Hinduism is now followed by 0.5 percent of the population, it was formerly a major religion in Myanmar. Various Hindu conflicts occurred with Theravada and Mahayana in the first millennium and in the time Pagano (IX centuries XIII) when components Saiva and vaishana had a larger impact than the elite they would later on “Religion Popular Burma is practiced by many Bamar with Buddhism.”
Myanmar is one of Southeast Asia’s poorest countries, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement, and isolation. Myanmar’s economy is hampered by a lack of an educated and competent workforce in contemporary technologies, despite recent reforms and advances by the new administration, in cooperation with nations and international organizations, aimed at making this a thing of the past.
Myanmar suffers from a lack of sufficient infrastructure. The commodities are mostly transported over the border between Thailand (where the majority of illicit narcotics are shipped) and along the Irrawaddy River. The railroads are ancient and dilapidated, with little maintenance since they were built towards the end of the nineteenth century. Except in large cities, most roads are unpaved. Energy shortages are prevalent across the nation, including Yangon, and just 25% of the population has access to power.
The military government owns the bulk of the country’s main industrial businesses (production of petroleum products and consumption for transport and tourism).
Kyat is the national currency. Between 2005 and 2007, inflation averaged 30.1 percent. Inflation is a significant economic issue.
In 2010-2011, Bangladesh exported $9.65 million in goods to Myanmar, while importing $ 179 million. During the 2000s, Myanmar imported $ 160 million in pharmaceuticals and medical equipment per year.
In recent years, China and India have attempted to deepen their commercial relations with the government. Many countries, notably the United States and Canada, as well as the European Union, have placed trade and investment restrictions on Myanmar. In 2012, the United States and the European Union relaxed most of its sanctions. China, Singapore, the Philippines, South Korea, India, and Thailand are the primary sources of foreign investment.