Bangladesh is a sovereign state in South Asia, formally the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. It is the biggest and most eastern part of Bengal’s ethnolinguistic area. The nation is located at the head of the Bay of Bengal, bordering India and Myanmar and separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the short Siliguri corridor. It is the eighth most populous nation in the world, the fifth most populous in Asia, and the third most populous country with a Muslim majority, with a population of 170 million. Bangladesh shares the official Bengali language with the bordering states of West Bengal, Tripura, and Assam (Barak Valley).
Three of Asia’s biggest rivers, the Ganges (locally referred to as the Padma), the Brahmaputra (locally referred to as the Jamuna), and the Meghna, run through Bangladesh and combine to create the lush Bengal Delta, the world’s largest delta. world. Bangladesh is home to 700 rivers, the majority of the world’s biggest mangrove forest, rainforest and tea-growing mountains, a 600-kilometer-long (370-mile-long) coastline with the world’s longest beach, and numerous islands, including a coral reef. Bangladesh, along with South Korea and Monaco, is one of the world’s most densely inhabited nations. Dhaka, the capital, and Chittagong, the port city, are the two most populous urban hubs. Bengalis are the largest ethnic group, followed by Bengali Hindus, Chakmas, Bengali Christians, Marmas, Tanchangyas, Bisnupriya Manipuris, Bengali Buddhists, Garos, Santhals, Biharis, Oraons, Tripuris, Worlds, Rakhines, Rohingyas, Ismailis, and Bahais.
The ancient Greeks and Romans referred to the Great Bengal as Gangaridai. The delta’s inhabitants created their own language, script, literature, music, art, and architecture. The area was characterized as a maritime power in early Asian literature. It was a vital link on the ancient Silk Road. For four centuries, Bengal was incorporated into the Muslim world and controlled by sultans, notably the Sultanate of Delhi and the Sultanate of Bengal. This was followed by the Mughal Empire’s governance. The Islamic Bengal was a cultural melting pot, a regional power, and a significant participant in medieval global commerce. At the end of the 18th century, the British colonial conquest began. Nationalism, social reforms, and the arts flourished under the British Raj, when the area was a hotspot of the subcontinent’s anti-colonial movement.
The first British partition of Bengal in 1905, which established the provinces of East Bengal and Assam, laid the groundwork for the 1947 partition of British India, when East Bengal became part of the Dominion of Pakistan and was renamed East Pakistan in 1955. It was isolated from West Pakistan by Indian territory spanning 1,400 kilometers (870 miles). Eastern Pakistan was home to the bulk of the population and the legislative capital. In 1971, the Bangladesh Liberation War culminated in East Pakistan’s independence as a new republic with a secular multiparty parliamentary democracy. In 1975, a presidential administration was created via a state of an ephemeral party and numerous military coups. In 1991, the parliamentary republic was restored, resulting in increased economic development and relative stability. Bangladesh is still grappling with poverty, corruption, divided politics, security forces violations of human rights, overpopulation, and global warming. The nation has, nevertheless, achieved significant strides in human development, particularly in areas like as health, education, gender equality, population management, and food production. From 57 percent in 1990 to 25.6 percent in 2014, the poverty rate has decreased.
Bangladesh, a middle power in international affairs and a significant developing country, is one of the following eleven countries. It is a unitary state governed by an elected legislature known as Jatiyo Sangshad. Bangladesh is South Asia’s third biggest army and economy, after India and Pakistan. It is a founding member of SAARC and is home to BIMSTEC’s permanent secretariat. The nation is the biggest donor to UN peacekeeping missions on a worldwide scale. It is a member of the Group of 77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the BCIM, and the Indian Ocean Association. The nation is endowed with significant natural resources, including as natural gas and limestone. Agriculture is primarily responsible for the production of rice, jute, and tea. Bangladesh, historically known for its muslin and silk, is currently one of the top manufacturers.
Bangladesh, a middle power in international affairs and a significant developing country, is one of the following eleven countries. It is a unitary state governed by an elected legislature known as Jatiyo Sangshad. Bangladesh is South Asia’s third biggest army and economy, after India and Pakistan. He is a founding member of SAARC and is home to BIMSTEC’s permanent secretariat. The nation is the biggest donor to United Nations peacekeeping missions on a worldwide scale. He is a member of the 77 Group, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement, the BCIM, and the Indian Ocean. The nation is endowed with significant natural resources, including as natural gas and limestone. Agriculture is primarily responsible for the production of rice, jute, and tea. Bangladesh, historically known for its muslin and silk, is now one of the world’s top textile producers. The European Union, the United States, Japan, and other surrounding countries like as China, Singapore, Malaysia, and India are its primary trade partners.
Bangladesh | Introduction
In the summer of 1947, combined leaders of the Congress, the Indian-Muslim League, and the United Kingdom partitioned British India, forming the Commonwealth of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of India. After a violent nine-month battle, East Bengali-speaking Pakistan broke away from its union with western Pakistan, which was dominated by the Punjab, to form Bangladesh in 1971. Despite the fact that Bangladesh became an independent nation in 1971, it has a long history and has long been regarded as a crossroads of history and culture. The world’s longest sea beach, numerous mosques, the world’s biggest mangrove forest, fascinating tribal communities, and a plethora of elusive animals may all be found here. Bangladeshis are extremely kind and hospitable people who devote personal hospitality to personal money, despite their country’s relative poverty in comparison to its prosperous South Asian neighbor, India.
Some of the most important industries are ready-made clothes, textiles, medicines, agricultural goods, shipbuilding, and fishing. The divide between rich and poor is widening, and the middle class is disappearing quickly, as it does across Asia, particularly in cities like Dhaka and Chittagong, as it shifts between working-class areas like Gulshan and Baridhara.
Bangladesh’s climate is subtropical monsoon. Winter (December-January), spring (February-March), summer (April-May), monsoon (June-July), autumn (August-September), and late autumn (October-November) are the six seasons of the year. In the winter, the average temperature in the nation varies from 9 to 29 degrees Celsius, while in the summer, it ranges from 21 to 34 degrees Celsius. Annual precipitation ranges from 160 to 200 cm in the west, 200 to 400 cm in the southeast, and 250 to 400 cm in the northeast. Cyclones of category three or four are uncommon (especially during the cold winter months of January to March), but they may still inflict extensive infrastructure and electricity outages, particularly in coastal regions. It is not advised that you travel in the southern portion of the nation during this season (Khulna, Bagerhat, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazaar).
Because it is extremely humid in the summer, cotton clothing is recommended. During the rainy season, be especially cautious: even major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong may be rapidly flooded by heavy rains, and exposed drains or missing sewer covers can be deadly. From October through February is the ideal time to visit.
Bangladesh is split into three geographical areas. The lush Ganges-Brahmaputra delta covers the majority of the nation. Madhupur and the Barind plateaus are responsible for portions of the country’s northwest and center. Evergreen mountain ranges may be found in the northeast and southeast. The confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers, as well as their tributaries, forms the Ganges delta. The Ganges flows into the Brahmaputra’s major river, the Jamuna, and then into the Meghna, which flows into the Bay of Bengal. Rivers deposit alluvial material as they overrun their banks, creating some of the world’s most fertile plains. Bangladesh has 57 transboundary rivers, which makes resolving water-related issues politically challenging in most instances, such as in India’s lower riverine state.
Bangladesh is mostly made up of fertile terrain. Most of Bangladesh is less than 12 meters (39.4 feet) above sea level, and it is predicted that around 10% of the land would be inundated if the sea level rose by one meter (3 meters). Forests comprise 17 percent of the land, while hill systems cover another 12 percent. The significance of the country’s wetlands to worldwide environmental research is enormous.
Since the 1960s, efforts to “construct with nature” have been undertaken in southeastern Bangladesh. The building of crossing dams has resulted in a natural build-up of silt, resulting in the formation of new lands. In the late 1970s, the Bangladeshi government started to encourage the development of this new area with the help of Dutch funding. The building of roads, sewers, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets, and ponds, as well as the allocation of land to settlers, have all become part of the endeavor. The initiative will have distributed 27,000 acres (10,927 hectares) to 21,000 households by the autumn of 2010. Keokradong, near the Myanmar border, has a height of 1,064 meters (3,491 feet), making it Bangladesh’s highest mountain.
On May 3, 1994, Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity. The country’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan must be reviewed by 2014.
Bangladesh is situated in the Indomalaya natural zone. A long coastline, many rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, mountainous woods, deciduous moist forests, swampy freshwater forests, and flat areas with tall grass are all part of its ecosystem. Bangladesh’s plain is known for its rich alluvial soil, which allows for vast agriculture. Villages are frequently buried in forests of mango, jaca, bamboo, betel nut, coconut, and date palm, and the land is characterized by luxuriant flora. There are 6000 plant species, including 5000 flowering plants. Many aquatic plants may be found in water bodies and wetland systems. During the monsoon, water lilies and lotuses bloom in abundance. There are 50 wildlife sanctuaries in the nation.
A significant portion of the Sundarbans, the world’s biggest mangrove forest, is found in Bangladesh. It is located in the southwestern coastal region and spans an area of 6,000 km2. The south, east, and west zones are the three protected sanctuaries. The woodland has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Wetlands, a unique environment, may be found in Sylhet’s north-eastern area. Tropical and subtropical coniferous woods, a swamp freshwater forest, and mixed deciduous forests are also included. Chittagong’s southeastern area is covered with evergreen and semi-evergreen mountain forests. The flat salt forest that stretches along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail, and Mymensingh in Bangladesh’s central region. The sole coral reef in the nation is on St. Martin’s Island.
Bangladesh’s woods, marshes, woodlands, and hills are home to a diverse range of animals. The overwhelming majority of animals reside in a 150,000 km2 area. The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther, and fisherman are some of the Sundarbans’ major predators. The Asian elephant, gibbon hoolock, Asian black bear, and different colored eastern hornbills may all be found in Bangladesh’s north and east.
Chital deer may be found in abundance in the southwest’s woods. The crowned langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons, and water monitors are among the other creatures. Irrawaddy dolphins and Gangetic dolphins are found in great numbers in Bangladesh. According to a 2009 census, there are 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins living in Bangladesh’s coastal waterways. Amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19), and marine mammals are all found in abundance in the nation (5). It is home to 628 different bird species.
Several creatures, including a rhinoceros horn and two rhinoceros horns, and the common peacock, went extinct in Bangladesh during the past century. Deforestation is limited to some degree since the human population is concentrated in metropolitan areas. Natural ecosystems have been endangered by rapid urbanization. Despite the fact that many places are legally protected, this expansion threatens a significant portion of Bangladesh’s biodiversity. Bangladesh’s Environmental Conservation Act was passed in 1995. Several places, including wetlands, woods, and rivers, have been recognized as environmentally important zones by the government. The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are two important conservation efforts.
Bangladesh’s population is estimated to be between 162 and 168 million people, according to the latest current statistics (2015). However, the 2011 census projected a population of 142.3 million, which is much lower than previous projections (2007-2010) of a population of 150 to 170 million in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is therefore the world’s seventh most populated country. The population was just 44 million in 1951. When extremely tiny nations and city-states are included, it is also the world’s most densely populated major country, ranking 11th in population density.
In the 1960s and 1970s, when Bangladesh’s population expanded from 65 to 110 million, it had one of the world’s fastest population growth rates. In the 1980s, with the promotion of birth control, the growth rate started to slow. The fertility rate is currently 2.55, which is lower than India’s (2.58) and Pakistan’s (2.58). (3.07). With 34% of the population being under the age of 15, and 5% being 65 or over, the population is quite youthful. In 2012, men and women’s life expectancy at birth was predicted to be 70 years. Despite the country’s tremendous economic development, approximately 26% of the population lives below the international poverty line, which implies they survive on less than $1.25 per day. Bengalis account for 98% of the population.
Indigenous people from the Chittagong Hill Tracts and other areas of northern Bangladesh are among the minorities. There are 11 tribal ethnic groups in the Hill Tracts, including the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki, Khiang, Khumi, Murang, Mru, Chak, Lushei, and Bawm. The Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasi, and Jaintia tribes live in the Sylhet Division. Garo people live in large numbers in the Mymensingh district. The Santal, Munda, and Oraon people live in Bangladesh’s northern area. Bangladesh also has a sizable Ismaili population.
During the Burmese military repressions between 1978 and 1991, the southeastern area experienced a large inflow of Rohingya refugees from Burma. Bangladesh closed its borders in 2012 in response to escalating sectarian violence in Rakhine State, fearing a third big refugee outflow. Burma The stranded Pakistanis, sometimes known as Biharis, have been a source of contention between Bangladesh and Pakistan. All second-generation Pakistanis born after 1971 were given full citizenship by the Bangladesh High Court in 2008. From 1975 until 1997, an indigenous struggle for autonomy in the Hill Tracts area resulted in rioting and insurrection. Although a peace treaty was reached in 1997, the area is still highly militarized.
With approximately 88 percent of the people subscribing to Islam, Bangladesh is the most religiously diverse country in the world. The majority of Bengali Muslims, the world’s second biggest ethnic minority, live in the nation. Sunni Muslims make up the majority of Bangladeshi Muslims, followed by Shiites and Ahmadis. Non-denominational Muslims make up around 4% of the Muslim population. Bangladesh, behind Indonesia and Pakistan, has the world’s fourth-largest Muslim population and is the world’s third-largest Muslim nation.
About 11% of the population is Hindu, with the majority being Hindu Bengali and a tiny ethnic component. Bangladesh’s Hindus are the country’s second biggest religious group and the world’s third largest Hindu community, behind those in India and Nepal. Hindus are concentrated in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong, and parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, with significant concentrations in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong, and portions of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Despite their declining numbers, Hindus remain Dhaka’s second biggest religious group, behind Muslims.
With 0.6 percent of the population, Buddhism is the third most popular religion. Buddhists in Bangladesh are mostly found among the ethnic groups of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, especially the Chakma, Marma, and Tanchangya peoples, although Bengali Buddhists may be found on the Chittagong Coast.
With 0.3 percent of the population, Christianity is the fourth most popular religion.
The remaining 0.1 percent of the population practices a variety of popular and animist faiths.
Sufism, which has a long history in Bangladesh, is practiced by a large number of individuals. The Bishwa Ijtema, which is held every year by the Tablighi Jamaat, is the biggest assembly of Muslims in the nation. After Hajj, Ijtema is the world’s second biggest Muslim gathering.
Bangladesh’s constitution proclaims Islam to be the official religion, although it forbids religious policy. Proclaim that Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, and individuals of all faiths are all equal. Bangladesh became the first legally secular nation in South Asia in early 1972. Bangladesh is described as a pluralistic secular democracy by the US State Department.
Bangladesh is a developing nation with a mixed market economy, and it is one of Next Eleven’s emerging markets. Bangladesh’s GDP was US $ 209 billion in 2014, with a per capita income of US $ 1,190. Bangladesh, after India and Pakistan, has the third biggest economy in South Asia and the second largest foreign exchange reserve after India. In 2015, the Bangladeshi diaspora donated $15.31 billion USD.
Bangladesh embraced socialist policies during its first five years of independence, which proved to be a major miscalculation on the part of the Awami League. The military dictatorship that followed, as well as the governments of the BNP and the Jatiya parties, restored open markets and encouraged the private sector in Bangladesh. Finance Minister Saifur Rahman initiated a series of liberal reforms in 1991. Bangladesh’s private sector has expanded quickly since then, with several conglomerates now helping to stimulate the economy. Textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, building materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing, and leather products are among the major industries. In recent years, export-oriented industry has grown, and the country’s exports have surpassed 30 billion dollars. UU In the years 2014-2015. Bangladesh’s garment industry generates the majority of the country’s export revenues. The nation also boasts a thriving business sector, which includes the Nobel Peace Prize-winning microfinance institution Grameen Bank and the world’s biggest non-governmental development organization, BRAC.
Inadequate energy supply is a significant stumbling block to development. Bangladesh’s growth is being hampered by bad governance, corruption, and weak public institutions, according to the World Bank. Bangladesh received a BB long-term credit rating from Standard & Poor’s in April 2010, which is lower than India but higher than Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Things To Know Before Traveling To Bangladesh
The voltage is 220V and the frequency is 50 Hz. The ancient British standard BS-546, the current British BS-1363 standard, and the European standard CEE-7/16 “Europlug” are the three kinds of electrical outlets that are likely to be found in Bangladesh. It’s a good idea to bring adapters for all three.
The majority of women dress in a sari or a salwar kameez [a three-piece costume consisting of a knee-length tunic (“kameez”), trousers (“salwar”), and a matching scarf (“urna”)]. Out of respect for the culture, foreign ladies should consider wearing at least the salwar kameez. However, increasing westernization has altered how contemporary city residents, particularly the upper class, dress. Younger people wear jeans, tees, and t-shirts, but bear in mind that it is polite to cover your shoulders, chest, and legs. Shorts are worn exclusively by young boys in public, while undershirts are worn alone (without a shirt covering them) only by the lowest class.
Men may easily leave their razors at home and depend on the always-present hairdressers, who charge about Tk 10-20 for a simple shave. Make sure they’re using a fresh blade, but you shouldn’t have to ask. Barbers often believe that foreign visitors desire “deluxe” shaves, so bear in mind that all you need is a fast shave and that you do not want the questionable massage and shaving of your forehead and nose.
Around 7% is anticipated in premium restaurants, but it’s the exception rather than the norm in casual eateries and with street food sellers. Consider leaving a small gratuity for the driver and delivery guys.