Sunday, January 16, 2022

History Of Brazil

South AmericaBrazilHistory Of Brazil

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Before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Americas, the region now known as Brazil was home to people belonging mainly to the Tupi and Guarani ethnic groups. Colonisation by the Portuguese began in the late 16th century with the extraction of the valuable wood of the Pau Brasil tree, from which the country takes its name. Brazil was colonised and developed by the Portuguese rather than by the Spanish, who appropriated much of the Americas. Under Portuguese rule, parts of Brazil formed a Dutch colony between 1630 and 1654. The Dutch founded several cities, such as Mauritsville, and many sugar cane plantations. The Dutch fought a fierce jungle war against the Portuguese. Without the support of their home republic due to a war with England, the Dutch surrendered to the Portuguese, although they did not officially recognise Portuguese rule, which led to an all-out war with Portugal off the Portuguese coast in 1656. In 1665, the Hague Peace Treaty was signed, Portugal lost its Asian colonies and had to pay the Dutch Republic 63 tons of gold as compensation for the loss of its colony.

Brazil became the centre of the Portuguese empire in 1808, when King Dom João VI. (John VI) fled Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal and set up his government in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

The next four centuries saw the continued exploitation of the country’s natural resources, such as gold and rubber, and the growth of an economy largely based on sugar, coffee and African slave labour. Christianisation and exploitation of the indigenous people continued, and the 19th and 20th centuries saw a second wave of immigration, mainly of Italians, Germans (in southern Brazil), Spaniards, Japanese (in the state of São Paulo) and Portuguese, which contributed to a number of factors that have given rise to the complex and unique Brazilian culture and society of today.

After three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil became an independent nation on 7 September 1822. Until 1889, Brazil was an empire under the reign of Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II, when it became an emerging world power. Slavery was initially widespread and was restricted by successive laws until its final abolition in 1888. Many factors contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy and the subsequent rise of nominal republicanism, but in fact there was military intervention in Brazil for a century after the fall of the empire.

By far the largest, most populous and most prosperous country in Latin America, Brazil has only recently emerged from more than two decades (1964-1988) of military intervention in the country’s government to seek democratic rule as it faces the challenges of further industrial and agricultural growth and domestic development. By harnessing vast natural resources, a huge geographic area, a large labour pool and relatively liberal economic rules, Brazil is now Latin America’s leading economic power and a regional leader, eclipsing countries like Mexico and Argentina. Political corruption, as in most Latin American countries, and high barriers to entry, especially in labour matters, remain pressing problems. One consequence is the high crime rate, especially in the big cities.

The recent ‘pink tide’ in Latin American politics has led to greater economic inequality in Brazil, as in other countries. The political class is increasingly wealthy and numerous, while the poorly educated and politically disconnected suffer from significant barriers to entry into labour, higher education and other markets. Dissatisfaction with the Brazilian government erupted into open protests during the 2014 World Cup. Government forces had begun evicting people from their homes even before the tournament began, and the response to the protests was by all accounts brutal. Some protesters pointed out the absurdity of building expensive stadiums in remote locations while people live in slums with no property rights.

How To Travel To Brazil

By airThe cheapest airfares are from February (after Carnival) to May and from August to November. Tickets from New York, for example, can cost as little as US$699 including taxes. Many underbooked flights within Brazil are available at low prices.São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (IATA: GRU) is by far the...

How To Travel Around Brazil

By airBrazilian Air PassportIf you are planning to visit different cities in Brazil, consider buying a Brazil Air Pass offered by TAM or Gol - you buy between 4 and 9 tickets that can be used at any time to any destination in Brazil served by the airline. The...

Destinations in Brazil

RegionsBrazil is the fifth largest country in the world. It is divided into five regions, which are mainly oriented towards state borders, but also more or less follow natural, economic and cultural boundaries.North (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins).The Amazon, the rainforest and border life, with a notable...

Weather & Climate in Brazil

Brazil's climate encompasses a wide range of weather conditions over a vast area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, Brazil has five main climate subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semi-arid, mountain tropical, temperate and subtropical. The different climatic conditions give rise to...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Brazil

Brazil has a reciprocal visa policy with all countries, which means that where visa fees and restrictions are applied to Brazilians visiting a country, Brazil applies the same measures to visitors from that country.Citizens of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela can enter the country...

Accommodation & Hotels in Brazil

The high season in Brazil follows the school holiday calendar, with December and January (summer) being the busiest months. New Year's Eve, Carnival (which can be moved between February and March, see understanding above) and Holy Week are the peak periods and prices can soar, especially in coastal cities...

Things To See in Brazil

A natural wonderAmazon Rainforest - The Amazon basin is home to more than half of the world's remaining rainforest, and more than 60 per cent of it is in northern Brazil - about one billion hectares of incredible biodiversity. The region is home to some 2.5 million species of...

Things To Do in Brazil

CarnivalThe world's biggest festival takes place every year throughout the country and lasts for almost a week in February or early March. It is celebrated in a variety of ways, from the giant Boneco masks in Olinda and the Trios Elétricos in Salvador to the huge samba parades in...

Food & Drinks in Brazil

Food in BrazilBrazilian cuisine is as diverse as its geography and culture. On the other hand, some may find it a half-baked concoction, and everyday dishes can be bland and monotonous. Although there are some fairly unique dishes of regional origin, many dishes have been brought by immigrants from...

Money & Shopping in Brazil

CurrencyThe Brazilian unit of currency is the real (pronounced "hay-AHL"), plural reais ("hay-ICE"), abbreviated BRL, or simply R$. One real is divided into 100 centavos. To illustrate how prices are written, R$1.50 means one real and fifty centavos.Foreign currency such as US dollars or euros can be exchanged at...

Festivals & Holidays in Brazil

Brazil has the following 13 public holidays:New Year - 1 JanuaryCarnival - February/March (moveable - 7 weeks before Easter. Monday and Tuesday are the actual public holidays, but the festivities usually start on Saturday and last until Ash Wednesday at noon, when shops and services reopen).Holy Week - March/April...

Traditions & Customs in Brazil

Brazilians tend to be very open and talk freely about their problems, including political and other issues. They also use a lot of self-deprecating humour. This allows you to make jokes about Brazil's problems when they talk about these topics, in a playful way. When you point out something...

Internet & Communications in Brazil

By telephoneBrazil has an international telephone code of 55 and two-digit area codes, and telephone numbers are eight or nine digits long. Some regions used seven digits until 2006, which means you can still find old phone numbers that don't work unless you add another digit. (Most of the...

Language & Phrasebook in Brazil

The official language of Brazil is Portuguese, which is spoken by the entire population (with the exception of some very remote tribes). In fact, Brazil has been home to immigrants from all parts of the world for centuries, whose descendants now speak Portuguese as their mother tongue.Brazilian Portuguese has...

Culture Of Brazil

Because of Brazil's continental dimensions, its diverse geography, history and population, the country's culture is rich and varied. It has several regional variations, and despite being mostly united by one language, some regions are so different that they look like different countries.Music plays an important role in the Brazilian...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Brazil

Stay Safe in BrazilThe law requires everyone to carry a piece of photo identification with them at all times. For a foreigner, this is your passport. However, the police will usually be pragmatic and accept a laminated colour photocopy.CrimeEven the most patriotic Brazilian would say that the country's biggest...

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