Saturday, April 10, 2021

Mexico | Introduction

North AmericaMexicoMexico | Introduction

Mexico, formally the United Mexican States, is a federal republic located in the southern part of North America. It borders the United States to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south and west, Guatemala, Belize and the Caribbean Sea to the southeast, and the Gulf of Mexico to the east. With an area of nearly two million square kilometres, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, it is the 11th most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, while being the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one federal district, which is also the country’s capital and most populous city. The other major cities of the country are Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Before first contact with Europeans, pre-Columbian Mexico was the homeland of many Meso-American advanced civilisations, including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec. The Spanish Empire in 1521 had conquered and colonised the territory from their base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was governed as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico after the recognition of the colony in the Mexican War of Independence in 1821. The turbulent period after independence was characterised by economic instability and many political changes. As a result of the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848, the vast northern territories of the frontier, representing 1/3 of the territory, became part of the territory of the United States. The Pastoral War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship ran through the 19th century. The dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated in the adoption of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country’s current political system.

Mexico is the country with the 15th largest nominal GDP and 11th largest by purchasing power parity. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which it joined in 1994. It is classified as a middle-income country by the World Bank and as an emerging economy by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy in the world. The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power and is often referred to as an emerging world power. Mexico’s rich culture and history make it ranked 1st in the Americas and 7th in the world by the number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In 2015, it was the ninth most visited country in the world with 32.1 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organisation, the G8+5, the G20.

Tourism

Mexico is traditionally one of the most visited countries in the world, according to the World Tourism Organization, and is the most visited country in the Americas after the United States. The most remarkable attractions in Mexico include Mesoamerican ruins, cultural festivals, its colonial cities, nature reserves and beautiful beach resorts. With a wide variety of climates, ranging from temperate to tropical, and its unique culture – which is a fusion of European and Meso-American – is what makes Mexico such an attractive destination. The peak season for tourism in the country is December and mid-summer, with a brief upswing during the week before Easter and spring break, when many of the beach resorts become popular destinations for students from the United States.

In terms of income from tourism, Mexico has the 23rd high income in the world as well as the highest in Latin America. Most of the tourists coming to Mexico from the US and Canada, then from Europe and Asia. Also, a smaller number visit Mexico from other Latin American countries. In 2011, Mexico ranked 43rd in the world and 4th in the Americas in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index.

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Mexico’s coasts have many stretches of beach frequented by sunbathers and other visitors. On the Yucatán Peninsula, the resort of Cancún is one of the most popular beach destinations, especially among university students during spring break. Just off the coast is the beach island of Isla Mujeres, and to the east is Isla Holbox. South of Cancún is the coastal strip called the Riviera Maya, which includes the beach town of Playa del Carmen and the ecological parks of Xcaret and Xel-Há. A day trip to the south of Cancún is the historic port city of Tulum. In addition to its beaches, the city of Tulum is also known for its Mayan ruins on the cliffs.

On the Pacific coast is the well-known tourist destination of Acapulco. Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches are now crowded and the shores are dotted with multi-story hotels and vendors. Acapulco is home to the famous cliff divers: trained divers who jump off the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below.

At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas, known for its beaches and marlin fishing. Further north along the Sea of Cortés is Bahía de La Concepción, another beach town known for its sport fishing. Closer to the border with the United States is the weekend town of San Felipe, Baja California.

Geography

Mexico is situated in the Southern part of North America at latitudes 14° and 33°N and longitudes 86° and 119°W. Almost all of Mexico is on the North American plate, with small parts of the Baja California peninsula on the Pacific and the Coconut Plates. From a geophysical point of view, some geographers count the area east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (about 12% of the total area) as part of Central America, but from a geopolitical point of view, Mexico is counted entirely as part of North America, along with Canada and the United States.

Mexico’s total surface area is 1,972,550 km2 (761,606 square miles), making it the 14th largest country in the world in total, and includes approximately 6,000 km2 (2,317 square miles) on Pacific islands, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of California.

To the north, Mexico shares a 2,000-mile border with the United States. The winding Rio Bravo del Norte (known in the United States as the Rio Grande) defines the border from Ciudad Juarez eastward to the Gulf of Mexico. A number of natural and man-made border markers outline the U.S.-Mexico state line west of Ciudad Juárez all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Mexico shares a 871 km border with Guatemala as well as a 251 km border with Belize to the South.

From north to south, Mexico is crossed by 2 mountain ranges called the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Sierra Madre Occidental, and these are extensions of the Rocky Mountains in North America. The country is crossed from east to west in the center with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which is also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, extends from Michoacán to Oaxaca.

Most of central and northern Mexico has a high altitude in which the highest peaks are located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

Demographics

According to the 2010 census, Mexico has a population of 112,336,538 people, which makes it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Between 2005 and 2010, the Mexican population grew at an average rate of 1.70% per year, compared to 1.16% per year between 2000 and 2005.

Prior to 2015, the Mexican government did not ask about the ethnicity or race of its citizens (most recently in 1921). The number of indígenas (indigenous peoples) was narrowly defined as speakers of one of Mexico’s 62 indigenous languages or members of established indigenous communities. For example, the 2010 census found that 14.86% of the population was indigenous. However, since the 2015 census, the government has asked whether a person identifies as indigenous (21.5% of the population) and/or Afro-Mexican (1.2% of the population). These categories are not exclusive, and a person may report both indigenous and Afro-Mexican heritage. Other groups (such as mestizo, white, or Asian-descended) are not quantified by the government.

In 2015, the foreign-born population was 1,007,063. Most of these people were born in the US, and Mexico has the largest number of US citizens living abroad. Following Americans, among the largest immigrant communities are Guatemalans, Spaniards, and Colombians. In addition to Spaniards, the largest immigrant groups are French, Germans, Lebanese, and Chinese. For the United States, Mexico is the largest immigration source. 11.6 million residents of the United States hold Mexican citizenship (as of 2014).

Ethnicity and race

Depictions of the three main castas resulting from the miscegenation of Europeans, Africans, and Native Americans. The pinturas de castas emerged during the Age of Enlightenment and were an attempt to “rationally categorize” the racial diversity of colonial Mexico.

México has considerable ethnic diversity; several indigenous peoples, Caucasians, Afro-descendants, and mestizos are all united under one national identity. The core part of Mexican national identity is formed based on a synthesis of cultures, primarily European and indigenous, in a process known as mestizaje, alluding to the mixed biological origins of the majority of Mexicans.

In 1810, toward the end of the colonial period, the population of Mexico was estimated at about 6 million (based on the 1793 Revillagigedo census and the 1803 estimate of geographer Alexander Humboldt and the 1810 estimate of royal accountant Francisco Navarro y Noriega). From these population estimates, anthropologist Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán estimated the following in terms of race and ethnicity There were about 15,000 “peninsulares” (displaced after independence), fewer than 10. 000 Africans (mostly enslaved, legally freed in 1829), more than one million “Euromestizos” (criollos and individuals of primarily European ancestry, such as castizos), about 700,000 “Indomestizos” (individuals of significant indigenous ancestry), about 600,000 “Afromestizos” (individuals of significant African ancestry, such as mulatos), and about 3. 7 million indigenous peoples. Mexico does not ask about race in its census, in part because it abolished the legal basis of the colonial caste system (based on race and birth) after independence.

A large majority of Mexicans were classified as “mestizos” (between 50% and 67% according to the Encyclopædia Britannica). In modern Mexico, the term “mestizo” is primarily a cultural identity rather than the racial identity it was during the colonial period, resulting in individuals with different phenotypes being classified under the same identity. The term is not widely used in Mexican society, although it is frequently used in the literature on Mexican social identities. Because the term has a variety of sociocultural, economic, racial, and biological meanings, it has been deemed too imprecise for ethnic classification and has been abandoned in Mexican censuses. Various genetic studies have shown that Mexico’s population is not uniform in its genetic composition and that there are significant regional differences. According to the Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, mestizos of European descent predominate on average in the northern part of the country, while mestizos from the southern region are predominantly of indigenous descent; mestizos from the center of the country have a more equal proportion of Europeans and indigenous people, while the highest proportion of Africans has been found in the southwest and in Veracruz. In the Yucatán Peninsula, the word mestizo is even used about the Mayan-speaking population living in traditional communities, since during the caste war in the late 19th century, those Mayans who did not join the rebellion were classified as mestizos.

Estimates of the number of whites range from 10% to 20%, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica. The numbers vary widely because the criteria used to define mestizo can vary from study to study, and in Mexico a certain number of whites have historically been classified as mestizo because the Mexican government defined ethnicity by cultural rather than racial standards. During the colonial period and independence, most European immigration to Mexico was Spanish. However, during the 19th and 20th centuries, significant numbers of non-Hispanic Europeans also immigrated to the country. At its peak, however, the percentage of immigrants in Mexico never exceeded two percent of the total population. Some of these immigrants, along with the non-European immigrants, were expelled from the country during the Mexican Revolution. The northern regions of Mexico have the largest European population and admixture. According to the last racial census in Mexico, taken in 1921, there was no state in Mexico that had a majority “white” population, and in virtually every state in the north, mestizos were the largest population group. The only state where “whites” outnumbered mestizos was Sonora, where “whites” comprised 41.85% of the population and mestizos 40.38%.

The absolute indigenous population of Mexico (26,694,928 persons as of 2015) is growing, but at a slower rate than the rest of the population, so the percentage of indigenous peoples in the total population is nevertheless decreasing. Most of the indigenous population is concentrated in the central and southern states, especially in rural areas. Some indigenous communities have some autonomy under the legislation of “usos y costumbres,” which allows them to regulate some internal affairs under customary law. According to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples, the states with the largest percentage of indigenous inhabitants are: Yucatán with 59%, Quintana Roo 39% and Campeche 27%, mainly Maya; Oaxaca with 48% of the population, the most numerous groups are Mixtec and Zapotec; Chiapas with 28%, the majority are Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya; Hidalgo 24%, majority Otomi; Puebla 19% and Guerrero 17%, majority Nahua peoples; and the states of San Luis Potosí and Veracruz each host a population that is 15% indigenous, majority from the Totonac, Nahua and Teenek (Huastec) groups. All indices of social development for the indigenous population are significantly lower than the national average. In all states, indigenous people have higher infant mortality rates, in some states almost twice as high as the non-indigenous population. Literacy rates are also significantly lower, with 27% of Indigenous children between the ages of 6 and 14 illiterate, compared to a national average of 12%. The indigenous population is in the labor force longer than the national average, starting earlier and staying in the labor force longer. However, 55% of the indigenous population receives less than a minimum wage, compared to a national average of 20%. Many engage in subsistence agriculture and do not receive wages. Indigenous populations also have poorer access to health care and lower quality housing.

The Afro-Mexican population (1,381,853 people, from 2015) is an ethnic group made up of descendants of colonial slaves and more recent immigrants of African origin from the sub-Saharan region. Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and about 200,000 Africans were deported there, mainly in the 17th century. The establishment of a Mexican national identity, most notably since the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico’s indigenous and European past, it passively removed African descent with its contributions. Most of the African population was absorbed by the surrounding mestizo (mixed European/indigenous) and indigenous people through the mixing of groups. The evidence of this long history of blending with mestizo and native Mexicans comprises the fact that 64.9% (896,829) among the Afro-Mexicans were also recognized as being indigenous for the 2015 census. Additionally, a 9.3% of Afro-Mexicans are recognized to speak an indigenous language. The states with the highest self-esteem of Afro-Mexicans were Guerrero (6.5% of the population), Oaxaca (4.95%) and Veracruz (3.28%). The Afro-Mexican culture is strongest in the Costa Chica of Oaxaca and Costa Chica of Guerrero.

Smaller ethnic groups in Mexico include the South and East Asians, who have been present since colonial times. During the colonial period Asians were referred to as Chino (regardless of their ethnic origin) and came as traders, craftsmen and slaves. Filipinos were the largest group, and about 200,000 Mexicans can trace their Filipino ancestry. Modern Asian immigration began at the end of the 19th century and at some point in the beginning of the 20th century the Chinese were the second largest immigrant group. The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated 400,000 Mexicans are of Lebanese descent.

Religion

According to the 2010 census), Roman Catholicism was the main religion, with 83% of the population, while 10% (10,924.103) belong to other Christian denominations. 172,891 (or less than 0.2% of the total) belonged to other, non-Christian religions; 4.7% reported no religion; 2.7% did not report.

Mexico’s 92,924,489 Catholics constitute the second largest Catholic community in the world in absolute numbers, after Brazil’s. 47% percent of them attend religious services weekly. The feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, is celebrated on December 12 and is considered by many Mexicans to be their country’s most important religious holiday.

The 2010 census counted 314,932 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, although in 2009 the church claimed to have over one million registered members.

Based on the 2010 census, the Jewish population in Mexico is 67,476.  Islam in Mexico is practiced by a small population in the city of Torreón, Coahuila, and there are an estimated 300 Muslims in the region of San Cristóbal de las Casas in Chiapas.

Economy

Mexico has the 15th largest national GDP and the 11th largest based on purchasing power parity. The average annual GDP growth rate over the period 1995-2002 was 5.1%. Mexico’s gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parities (PPS) was estimated at 2.2602 trillion U.S. dollars in 2015 and 1.3673 trillion U.S. dollars in nominal exchange rates. Mexico’s GDP in PPS per capita was $18,714.05. In 2009, the World Bank reports that the country’s gross national income at market prices is $1,830.392 billion, 2nd highest in Latin America after Brazil, and has the highest per capita income in the region at $14,400. Currently, Mexico stands as an upper-middle class country. After the 2001 slowdown, the country recovered and grew by 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006, even though the country is considered to be far below Mexico’s potential growth rate. Moreover, after the 2008-2009 recession, the economy grew at an average rate of 3.32 percent per year from 2010 to 2014.

Since the end of the 1990s, the majority of the population has been part of the growing middle class. However, from 2004 to 2008, the proportion of the population that received less than half of the median income rose from 17 to 21 percent and the absolute level of poverty increased between 2006 and 2010, with the number of people living in extreme or moderate poverty rising from 35 to 46 percent (52 million people). This is also reflected in the fact that the infant mortality rate in Mexico is three times higher than the average of OECD countries and that literacy levels are in the median range of OECD countries. Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs, Mexico will have the fifth largest economy in the world by 2050.

Of the OECD countries, Mexico has the second largest economic disparity between the extremely poor and the extremely rich after Chile – although the country has declined over the past decade as one of the few countries where this is the case. The bottom ten percent in the income hierarchy holds 1.36 percent of the country’s resources, while the top ten percent holds nearly 36 percent. The OECD also notes that Mexico’s budgeted spending on poverty reduction and social development is only about a third of the OECD average – both in absolute and relative terms.

Mexico’s electronics industry has grown enormously over the last decade. The Mexican electronics industry has increased enormously over the last decade. Mexico has the 6th largest electronics industry of the world. It is the world’ s 2nd largest electronics exporter to the US, with 71.4 billion dollars worth of electronics being exported to the US in 2011. Today, electronics represent 30% of Mexico’s exports.

Mexico is the country with the largest production of automobiles in all of North America. The industry manufactures technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities. Big Three (General Motors, Ford and Chrysler) operating in Mexico since the 1930′ s, and Volkswagen and Nissan build their factories in the 1960′ s. In Puebla alone, 70 industrial parts manufacturers are clustered around Volkswagen. The sector expanded rapidly in the 2010s. In 2014 alone, more than $10 billion in investments were made. Kia Motors announced plans for a $1 billion factory in Nuevo León in August 2014. Mercedes-Benz and Nissan at the time had already built a $1.4 billion factory in the vicinity of Puebla, while BMW was also making a plan for a $1 billion assembly factory in San Luis Potosí. Additionally, Audi began construction of a $1.3 billion factory near Puebla in 2013.

The domestic auto industry is represented by DINA S.A., which has been building buses and trucks since 1962, and the new Mastretta company, which produces the high-performance Mastretta MXT sports car. In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for nearly 50% of Mexico’s exports and 45% of its imports. In the first three quarters of 2010, the United States has a trade deficit of $46.0 billion with Mexico. In August 2010, Mexico overtook France to become the ninth largest holder of U.S. debt. Commercial and financial dependence on the United States is a concern.

Remittances from Mexican citizens working in the U.S. represent 0.2% of Mexico’s GDP, equivalent to $20 billion per year in 2004, and are the 10th largest source of foreign revenue. In 2008, remittances totaled US$25 billion, according to Mexico’s central bank.

Major players in the broadcasting industry include Televisa, the largest Spanish media company in the Spanish-speaking world, and TV Azteca.