Liechtenstein is a mountainous country and one of only two nations in the world that is both landlocked and bordered by landlocked countries. Uzbekistan is the other. In the western part of the nation, the Rhine Valley, which is long and broad, houses the majority of the country’s inhabitants. The majority of the roads are also built out in a north-south layout, following the valley. To the north, major highways go to the Austrian border; to the south, they reach Switzerland; and to the west, bridges span the river into Switzerland. Because of its hilly terrain, the majority of the eastern border with Austria is impassable and only accessible by foot, but the north of the county is well linked by road to Feldkirch in Austria. The Grauspitz, at 2,599 meters, is the country’s highest peak. San Marino is 2.5 times the size of Liechtenstein, while Monaco is 81 times the size of Liechtenstein.
Liechtenstein has a continental climate with cold, gloomy winters and snow or rain on a regular basis, making it a fairly popular ski destination. Summers are mild to moderately warm, with overcast skies and high humidity.
Liechtenstein is Europe’s fourth smallest nation in terms of population, with only Vatican City, San Marino, and Monaco having fewer people. Although one-third of the population is foreign-born, the majority of Alemannic speakers are German speakers from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, as well as other Swiss, Italians, and Turks. Two-thirds of the country’s workforce is made up of immigrants.
Liechtensteiners have an average life expectancy of 80.31 years at birth, with males averaging 76.86 years and females averaging 83.77 years (2011 est.). According to current estimates, the infant mortality rate is 4.64 deaths per 1,000 live births.
Liechtenstein protects individuals of all faiths and considers the government’s “religious interests of the people” to be a top concern. Religious education in Roman Catholicism or Protestantism (Reformed and/or Lutheran) is constitutionally compulsory in Liechtenstein schools, with exceptions. Religious groups are given tax exemption by the government. According to the Pew Research Center, social strife induced by religious hostility, as well as government restrictions on religious practice, are minimal in Liechtenstein.
According to the 2010 census, 85.8% of the population is Christian, with 75.9% belonging to the Roman Catholic faith, which is represented by the exempt Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vaduz, and 8.5 percent belonging to the Protestant faith, which is represented by the Evangelical Church in Liechtenstein and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Liechtenstein. Islam is the biggest minority religion (5.4 percent of total population). Catholicism is by far the most popular religion among Liechtenstein residents (87.0 percent ).
Despite its tiny size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has grown into a wealthy, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a thriving financial services industry and living standards comparable to those of its larger European neighbors’ metropolitan regions. The economy of Liechtenstein is diverse, with a significant number of small enterprises. Low business taxes (the top rate is 20%) and simple formation procedures have prompted a significant number of holding or “letter box” corporations to set up offices in Liechtenstein, accounting for 30% of the country’s income.
Liechtenstein is a member of the Swiss Customs Union and uses Swiss francs interchangeably with the Liechtenstein frank as its official currency. More than 90% of its energy needs are met by imports. Since May 1995, Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area, which acts as a link between the EFTA and the EU. The administration is attempting to align its economic policies with those of the European Union as a whole. The base rate of income tax in Liechtenstein is only 1.2 percent, making it one of the highest personal income rates (GDP per capita) in the world.
Liechtenstein is the top manufacturer of artificial teeth in the world.