Ireland is situated between latitudes 51° and 56° N and longitudes 11° and 5° W in Europe’s northwestern corner. The Irish Sea and the North Channel, which is 23 kilometers (14 miles) wide at its narrowest point, divide it from the neighboring island of Great Britain. The northern Atlantic Ocean is to the west, while the Celtic Sea, which runs between Ireland and Brittany, France, is to the south. Ireland has an area of 84,421 square kilometers (32,595 sq mi). The British Isles are made up of Ireland and the United Kingdom, as well as a number of smaller islands nearby. The alternative phrase Britain and Ireland is frequently used as a neutral word for the islands since the term British Isles is contentious in regard to Ireland.
Low lowlands in the island’s center are surrounded by a ring of coastal mountains. Carrauntoohil (Irish: Corrán Tuathail) in County Kerry is the tallest, rising to 1,038 meters (3,406 feet) above sea level.  The province of Leinster has the most arable land. Mountainous and rugged landscapes with green panoramic views may be found in western regions. The River Shannon originates in County Cavan in the north west and runs 113 kilometers (70 miles) to Limerick city in the midwest, making it the island’s longest river at 386 kilometers (240 miles).
The Emerald Isle gets its name from its lush greenery, which is a result of the island’s moderate temperature and regular rainfall. Overall, Ireland’s climate is moderate yet variable, with few extremes. The climate is usually insular and moderate, avoiding the temperature extremes that many other parts of the globe at comparable latitudes experience. This is due to the moist breezes from the South-Western Atlantic, which help to moderate the temperature.
The amount of precipitation varies throughout the year, although it is often light, especially towards the east. The west is wetter on average and more vulnerable to Atlantic storms, particularly in the late fall and winter. These storms may bring damaging winds, greater total rainfall, snow, and hail to these regions on occasion. The districts of north County Galway and east County Mayo have the most lightning strikes per year on the island, with lightning strikes occuring five to 10 days per year in these locations. In the south, Munster has the least snow, whereas in the north, Ulster has the most.
Summers are hotter and winters are colder in inland regions. At inland weather stations, approximately 40 days of the year are below freezing 0 °C (32 °F), compared to 10 days at coastal weather stations. Heat waves have struck Ireland on many occasions, most recently in 1995, 2003, 2006, and 2013. During the winter of 2009/10, Ireland, like the rest of Europe, suffered exceptionally cold weather. On December 20, temperatures in County Mayo dropped to 17.2 °C (1 °F), with up to a metre (3 ft) of snow falling in hilly regions.
The island is divided into many geological provinces. A medium to high grade metamorphic and igneous complex of Caledonideaffinity, comparable to the Scottish Highlands, may be found in the extreme west, near County Galway and County Donegal. A region of Ordovician and Silurian rocks spans southeast Ulster, stretching southwest to Longford and south to Navan, and is comparable to Scotland’s Southern Uplands. Granite intrusions into additional Ordovician and Silurian rocks, similar to those found in Wales, may be found farther south along the County Wexford shore.
A region of significantly deformed but only weakly metamorphosed Devonian-aged rocks may be found in the southwest, near Bantry Bay and the Macgillicuddy’s Reeks mountains. A covering of Carboniferous limestone covers this partial ring of “hard rock” geology in the country’s center, resulting in a relatively rich and lush environment. The karst characteristics of the Burren’s west-coast region near Lisdoonvarna are well-developed. The limestones near Silvermines and Tynagh have significant stratiform lead-zinc mineralisation.
Following the discovery of the Kinsale Head gas field off the coast of Cork in the mid-1970s, hydrocarbon exploration has continued. The Corrib Gas Field off the coast of County Mayo yielded commercially significant natural gas discoveries in 1999. This has boosted activity off the west coast in tandem with the North Sea hydrocarbon province’s “West of Shetland” step-out development. Another recent find is the Helvick oil field, which is believed to hold approximately 28 million barrels (4,500,000 m3) of oil.
Overall, Ireland’s climate is moderate yet variable, with few extremes. You may experience ‘four seasons in one day’ in Ireland, so prepare appropriately and stay up with the latest weather prediction. Expect the weather to be a subject of discussion among the locals, regardless of the weather.
There may be minor temperature variations between the north and south of the nation, as well as more rain in the west than in the east.
The average daily temperature in the winter ranges from 4°C to 7°C, while the average daily temperature in the summer ranges from 14.5°C to 16°C. Temperatures will seldom rise above 25°C or dip below -5°C.
Regardless of when you visit Ireland, even in the midst of the summer, you will almost certainly encounter rain, so bring a waterproof coat if you plan on being outside.
During the second part of the nineteenth century, Ireland’s population plummeted. By 1921, the population had dropped from nearly 8 million in 1841 to just over 4 million. The Great Famine, which killed approximately 1 million people between 1845 and 1852, contributed to the population decline in part. The country’s terrible economic situation, on the other hand, was by far the larger driver of population decrease, leading to an established culture of emigration that lasted until the twenty-first century.
In the nineteenth century, emigration from Ireland boosted the populations of England, the United States, Canada, and Australia, all of which have significant Irish diasporas. 4.3 million Canadians, or 14% of the population, are of Irish ancestry as of 2006. A total of 34.5 million Americans claim Irish ancestry as of 2013.
Since the latter decade of the twentieth century, Ireland has been a popular destination for immigrants. Since the European Union extended to include Poland in 2004, Poles have accounted for the greatest number of Central European immigrants (almost 150,000). Significant migration has also occurred from Lithuania, the Czech Republic, and Latvia.
The Republic of Ireland, in particular, has seen significant immigration, with 420,000 foreign nationals accounting for about 10% of the population in 2006. In 2009, a quarter of all births (24%) were to women born outside of Ireland. Non–European Union immigration to Ireland have mostly consisted of Chinese and Nigerians, as well as individuals from other African nations. In reaction to the Irish financial crisis, up to 50,000 eastern and central European migrant workers fled Ireland.