Georgian culture developed through thousands of years, beginning with the Iberian and Colchian civilizations and continuing with the emergence of the united Georgian Kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty. In the 11th century, Georgian culture had a golden period and renaissance in classical literature, arts, philosophy, architecture, and science.
After a long period of turmoil, the Georgian language and the Classical Georgian literature of the poet Shota Rustaveli were revived in the nineteenth century, laying the groundwork for modern-era romantics and novelists such as Grigol Orbeliani, Nikoloz Baratashvili, Ilia Chavchavadze, Akaki Tsereteli, Vazha Pshavela, and many others. Georgian culture was inspired by Classical Greece, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the numerous Iranian empires (particularly the Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanian, Safavid, and Qajar empires), and, later, the Russian Empire, beginning in the 19th century.
Georgians have their own three alphabets, which were created in the third century BC by King Pharnavaz I of Iberia, according to legend.
Georgia is well-known for its rich folklore, as well as its distinctive traditional music, dances, theater, film, and art. Georgians are well-known for their passion for music, dancing, theater, and film. In the twentieth century, notable Georgian painters included Niko Pirosmani, Lado Gudiashvili, and Elene Akhvlediani; ballet choreographers included George Balanchine, Vakhtang Chabukiani, and Nino Ananiashvili; poets included Galaktion Tabidze, Lado Asatiani, and Mukhran Machavariani; and theatre and film directors included Robert Sturua, Tengiz Abuladze,
Architecture and arts
Many cultures have impacted Georgian architecture. Castles, towers, fortresses, and cathedrals all have distinct architectural styles. The defenses of Upper Svaneti, as well as the castle town of Shatili in Khevsureti, are some of the best specimens of medieval Georgian castle construction. Other architectural features of Georgia are the Hausmann-style Rustaveliavenue in Tbilisi and the Old Town District.
One of the most prominent features of Georgian Christian architecture is the Georgian cross-dome style, which blends the classical dome style with the original basilica design. Cross-dome style emerged in Georgia around the ninth century; before, the majority of Georgian churches were basilicas. Outside of Georgia, other examples of Georgian ecclesiastic architecture include the Bachkovo Monastery in Bulgaria (built in 1083 by the Georgian military commander Grigorii Bakuriani), the Iviron monastery in Greece (built by Georgians in the 10th century), and the Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem (built by Georgians in the 9th century). Primitivist painter Niko Pirosmani was a well-known Georgian artist of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Georgia’s television, magazines, and newspapers are all run by both state-owned and for-profit companies that rely on advertising, subscriptions, and other sales-related income. Georgia’s constitution protects freedom of expression. The Georgian media system is changing as a result of the country’s transition.
Despite long-term politicization and polarization in the sector, Georgia’s media environment remains the most open and diversified in the South Caucasus. The political battle for control of the national broadcaster continued in 2014, leaving it without a clear direction.
A significant proportion of Georgian homes own a television, while the majority own at least one radio. The majority of Georgia’s media businesses are based in Tbilisi, the country’s capital and biggest city.
Georgia has a rich and dynamic musical history, well recognized for its contributions to the early development of polyphony. Georgian polyphony is composed of three vocal parts, a distinct tuning system based on perfect fifths, and a harmonic structure rich in parallel fifths and dissonances. Each area of Georgia has its unique traditional music, which includes polyphonic conversation over a bass backdrop and ostinato-like soloists in the east, intricate improvisational harmonies in the west, and strong moving chords in Svaneti.
The Georgian folk song “Chakrulo” (Georgian: ) was selected as one of 27 musical pieces to be placed on a Voyager Golden Record, which was sent into space on Voyager 2 on August 20, 1977.
Georgian Polyphonic Singing is on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List.
Georgian food and wine have developed throughout the ages, adjusting to each era’s customs. Supra, or Georgian table, is one of the most unique eating customs, as well as a method of socializing with friends and family. Tamada is the name given to the head of supra. He also oversees the very philosophical toasts and ensures that everyone has a good time. Various historical areas of Georgia are renowned for their distinct cuisine, such as khinkali (meat dumplings) from eastern highland Georgia and khachapuri, which is mostly found in Imereti, Samegrelo, and Adjara. In addition to traditional Georgian meals, immigration from Russia, Greece, and, most recently, China have introduced other nations’ cuisines to Georgia.