With warm summers and cold, cloudy and snowy winters, the Czech Republic have a moderate continental climate. The difference in temperature between summer and winter is relatively large, due to the country’s geographical location, which is landlocked.
Temperatures in the Czech Republic vary greatly depending on altitude. In general, temperatures fall at high altitudes and precipitation increases. One of the wettest parts of the Czech Republic is the area around Bílý Potok, and the most arid area is the district of Louny in north-western Prague. Another important factor is the distribution of mountains, which makes the climate very varied.
At the highest peak of Sněžka (1 602 m) the average temperature is only -0.4 °C (31 °F), while in the plains of the Southern Moravia region the average temperature can reach 10 °C (50 °F). Prague, the country’s capital, has a comparable average temperature, though it is influenced from urban factors.
January is typically the coldest month, which is followed by February and December. In these months, it usually snows in the mountains and sometimes in the big cities and plains. In March, April and May the temperature usually increases rapidly, especially in April, when the temperature and weather vary greatly during the day. Spring is also characterised by high water levels in rivers as a result of thawing and occasional flooding.
July is the hottest month of the year, which is followed by August and June. On average, summer temperatures are 20-30°C warmer than in winter. Summertime is also known for rain and storms.
Autumn usually begins in September, which is still relatively warm and dry. In October, temperatures usually drop below 15°C – 10°C and deciduous trees begin to lose their leaves. At the end of November, temperatures are usually around freezing point.
The coldest temperature ever recorded was at -42.2°C (-44.0°F) in Litvínovice near České Budějovice in 1929 and the warmest temperature recorded was at 40.4°C (104.7°F) in Dobřichovice in 2012.
Most rain falls in summer. While occasional rainfall is relatively constant all year round, concentrated heavy rainfall (days with more than 10 mm per day) is more frequent from May to August (an average of two days per month).