Bulgarian is a South Slavic language that uses the Cyrillic alphabet.
Bulgarian is mutually intelligible with Macedonian (considered by many Bulgarians to be a variant of Bulgarian) and also closely related to Serbo-Croatian. Russian and other Slavic languages are more distant, but still similar. If you know some of them, you shouldn’t have too many problems getting along with them.
Turkish was originally spoken by the Turks in Bulgaria, who live mainly in the mountains in the south and further north-east.
It is also important to note that many Bulgarians – unlike most nationalities – shake their heads for yes and nod for no! It is better to rely on the words “da” for yes and “ne” for no than on head movements.
Bulgarian education emphasises the study of foreign languages, especially English. The use of Russian has declined since the fall of the Iron Curtain, English is now much more popular. In the south, people often understand Greek and Turkish.