Al-Magar is a prehistoric civilization that was founded in, the center of the Arabian Peninsula, mostly in Najd. Al-Magar is the cradle of the first domestication of animals, especially the horse, in the Neolithic.
Dilmun is one of the oldest and oldest civilizations in the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula. It was a center of trade main at its head, the possibility of gulftrading the controlled streets of Arabs . The Dilmun comprised the great eastern side of the Arabian Peninsula, especially in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. One of the earliest inscriptions with the name Dilmun is that of King Ur-Nanshe of Lagash (approx. 2300 BC), which was found in a door socket : “Dilmun’s ships brought him wood as a homage from foreign lands.
Thamud is the name of an ancient Hejaz civilization that dates back to the 1st millennium BC. Until the time of Muhammad was known. Over 9,000 Thamudic inscriptions have been recorded in southwest Saudi Arabia.
The Kingdom of Lihyan (Arabic: لحيان ) or Dedan is an ancient kingdom of northern Arabia. It was located in the northwest of what is now Saudi Arabia and is known for its ancient North Saudi inscriptions from around the 6th to 4th centuries BC.
It is a tribal empire that was founded in Najd in central Arabia. Its kings exercised influence over a number of associated tribes out of personal prestige rather than established coercion. Its first capital was Qaryat Dhāt Kāhil , now known as Qaryat al- Fāw .
2 centuries before Islam
During the pre-Islamic era of the 2nd century , besides a small number of urban trading establishments (such as Mecca and Medina), most of what would later become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic tribal societies in the desert. inhospitable.
After Islam period
The Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca around AD 571. At the beginning of the 7th century, Muhammad united the different tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious regime. After his death in 632, his followers quickly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia and conquered vast areas (from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to modern Pakistan in the east) for a couple of decades. In this way, Arabiasoon became a politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as attention shifted to the more developed conquered countries. From the 10th century to the beginning of the 20th century, Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca. In most cases, however, the Sharif owed the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad, Cairo or Istanbul. Most of the rest of Saudi Arabia has returned to traditional tribal rule.
For much of the 10th century, the Isma’ili Shiite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf. In 930 the Qarmatians sacked Mecca and outraged the Muslim world, in particular by stealing the Black Stone.
The Hijaz region is the cradle of the first Islamic caliphate of the first period of Islam, which includes the first four Rashidun caliphs. The Islamic caliphate was established after Muhammad’s death in 632 (year 11 AD of the Islamic calendar). The capital of the first Islamic caliphate is Mecca and Medina. In its greatest form, the caliphate established an empire on the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, in the Caucasus in the north, in North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west and on the Iranian plateau ( Persian Empire ) to Central Asia in the east.
In the 16th century the Ottomans added the Red Sea and the coast of the Persian Gulf (Hedjaz, Asir and Al- Ahsa ) to the empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. One of the reasons was to thwart the Portuguese attempts to attack the Red Sea (hence the Hejaz) and the Indian Ocean. The degree of Ottoman control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the central authority of the empire.
Founding of the Saud dynasty
The formation of the Saudi royal family Al Saud began in Nejd in central Arabia in 1744 when Muhammad bin Saud, the founder of the dynasty, worked with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al- Wahhab , founder of the Wahhabi movement, a strictly Puritan form of Sunni Islam. This alliance, formed in the 18th century, gave the Saudi expansion the ideological impetus and is still the basis of the Saudi dynasty regime today.
The first “Saudi state”, established in the Riyadh area in 1744, grew rapidly and briefly controlled most of what is now Saudi Arabia, but was destroyed in 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of ‘Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha. A second, much smaller “Saudi state”, mainly located in the Nejd, was established in 1824. During the remainder of the 19th century, the Al Sauds contested control of what would later become Arabia. Arabia with another Arab ruling family, the Al Rashid. In 1891 the Al Rashids were victorious and the Al Saud were exiled to Kuwait.
At the beginning of the 20th century , the Ottoman Empire continued to control or exercise sovereignty over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers, with the Sharif of Mecca taking precedence and the Hejaz ruling. In 1902, Abdul Rahman’s son, Abdul Aziz – later known as Ibn Saud – regained control of Riyadh and brought Al Saud back to the Nejd. Ibn Saud received the support of Ikhwan, a Wahhabist-inspired tribal army led by Faisal Al- Dawish that had developed rapidly after it was founded in 1912. With the help of the Ikhwan Ibn Saud conquered Al- Ahsa from the Ottomans. in 1913.
With the encouragement and support of Great Britain (which fought the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire in 1916 to create a united Arab state. Although the Arab uprising of 1916-1918 failed, the Allied victory in World War I led to the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia.
Ibn Saud avoided getting involved in the Arab uprising and instead continued his fight against Al Rashid. After his final defeat, he assumed the title of Sultan of Nejd in 1921. With the help of the Ikhwan the Hedjaz was conquered 1924-1925 and on January 10th 1926 Ibn Saud declared himself king of Hedjaz. A year later he added the title of King of Nejd. For the next five years he administered both parts of his double empire as separate entities.
After the conquest of the Hejaz, the goal of Ikhwan’s leadership shifted to the expansion of the Wahhabist kingdom to the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait and began to attack these areas. This met with resistance from Ibn Saud when he realized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. At the same time, the Ikhwan was disappointed by Ibn Saud’s domestic policy, which appeared to favor modernization and an increase in the number of non-Muslim foreigners in the country. As a result, they turned against Ibn Saud and, after two years of fighting, were defeated in the 1929 Battle of Sabilla , where their leaders were killed. In 1932 the two kingdoms of Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia .
After the union
The new kingdom was one of the poorest countries in the world, dependent on limited agriculture and limited pilgrimage income. Large oil reserves were discovered in the Al Ahsa area of the Persian Gulf coast in 1938 , and large-scale development of oil fields began in 1941 under the control of the United States, Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company). Oil has brought economic prosperity and significant political influence to Saudi Arabia internationally.
Cultural life developed quickly, mainly in the Hejaz, the center of newspapers and radio. However, the massive influx of foreign workers into Saudi Arabia in the oil industry has increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. At the same time, the government has become more and more lavish and extravagant. In the 1950s this had resulted in large budget deficits and excessive foreign borrowing.
In 1953, Saoud of Saudi Arabia succeeded the King of Saudi Arabia after the death of his father, until he was dismissed from Saudi Arabia in 1964 after a rivalry in favor of his half-brother Faisal, fueled by the royal family’s doubts about Saud’s competence . In 1972, Saudi Arabia gained 20% control over Aramco, reducing US control over Saudi oil.
In 1973, Saudi Arabia carried out an oil boycott against Western countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria. Oil prices have quadrupled. In 1975 Faisal was murdered by his nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musaid, and replaced by his half-brother, King Khalid.
Until 1976, Saudi Arabia was the world’s largest oil producer. During Khalid’s reign, economic and social development proceeded extremely rapidly, changing the country’s infrastructure and education system. In foreign policy, close ties have developed with the United States. In 1979, two events occurred that deeply preoccupied the government and had a long-term impact on Saudi foreign and domestic policy. The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution. There were concerns that the Shiite minority in the country of Eastern Province ( which is also the location of the oil fields) would rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists. There have been several anti-government uprisings in the region, such as the 1979 Qatif uprising.
The second event was the capture of the Great Mosque of Mecca by Islamist extremists. The activists involved were sometimes angry about what they saw as corruption and the un-Islamic nature of the Saudi government. The government regained control of the mosque after 10 days and the prisoners were executed. Part of the royal family’s response has been to respect the country’s traditional religious and social norms (for example, closing cinemas) much more strictly, and to give the ulama a greater role in government. Neither was entirely successful as Islamism continued to grow.
1980 Saudi Arabia bought the American shares in Aramco.
King Khalid died of a heart attack in June 1982. He was succeeded by his brother, King Fahd, who added the name “Guardian of the two holy mosques” to his name in 1986 in response to significant fundamentalist pressure to avoid death. ‘use “Majesty”. “in connection with everything but God. Fahd continued to develop close ties with the United States and increased purchases of American and British military equipment.
The immense wealth generated by oil revenues began to have an even greater impact on Saudi society. This has led to rapid technological (but not cultural) modernization , urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media. This and the presence of a growing number of foreign workers have had a major impact on traditional Saudi standards and values. Although the country’s social and economic life changed dramatically, political power continued to be monopolized by the royal family, causing the discontent of many Saudis who began to seek more participation in the government.
In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia spent $ 25 billion to support Saddam Hussein in the Iran-Iraq war. However, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and called on the United States to intervene. King Fahd allowed US and coalition troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia. He urged the Kuwaiti government and many of its citizens to remain in Saudi Arabia, but expelled the citizens of Yemen and Jordan for their governments’ support for Iraq. In 1991, Saudi forces participated in both the bombing of Iraq and the ground invasion that helped liberate Kuwait.
Saudi Arabia’s relationship with the West has been a growing concern of some scholars and Sharia students, and has also been one of the problems that led to an increase in Islamist terrorism in Saudi Arabia. as Islamist terrorist attacks in western countries of Saudi Arabia. Nationals. Osama bin Laden was a Saudi citizen (until his citizenship was revoked in 1994) and was responsible for the 1998 bombings of the US embassy in East Africa and the attack on the USS Cole in 2000 near the port of Aden, Yemen. 15 of the 19 terrorists involved in the attacks of 11 were involved September in New York, Washington, DC, and near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, were Saudi nationals. However, many Saudis who did not support Islamist terrorists were deeply dissatisfied with the government’s policies.
Islamism was not the only source of hostility towards the government. Saudi Arabia’s economy nearly stagnated, despite being extremely rich now. High taxes and rising unemployment have contributed to dissatisfaction and led to unrest and dissatisfaction with the royal family. In response, King Fahd initiated a series of limited “reforms”. In March 1992 he passed the “Basic Law”, which placed the emphasis on the tasks and duties of a leader. The advisory board was inaugurated in December 1993. It consists of a President and 60 members, all selected by the King. The king wanted to react to dissent and change the status quo as little as possible. Fahd made it clear that he had no democracy in mind: “An electoral system does not correspond to our Islamic belief, which the government [ shūrā ] [ approves ] through consultation .”
In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke and Crown Prince Abdullah took over the role of de facto regent and took over the day-to-day administration of the country. His authority was, however, by a conflict with Fahd’s brothers (along with Fahd as ” Sudairi known Seven”) Disabled . From the 1990s onwards, signs of discontent continued, including a series of bomb attacks and armed violence in Riyadh, Jeddah, Yanbu and Khobar in 2003 and 2004 . The first national local elections were held in Saudi Arabia from February to April 2005 . Women were not allowed to take part in the survey.
In 2005, King Fahd died and was replaced by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimal reform and repression of protests. The king introduced a series of economic reforms to reduce the country’s reliance on oil revenues: limited deregulation, encouraging foreign investment, and privatization. In February 2009, Abdullah announced a series of government changes in the judiciary, the armed forces and various ministries to modernize these institutions, including the replacement of senior judicial and mutaween officials (religious police) with more moderate ones and the appointment of the first vice minister of the country.
On January 29, 2011, hundreds of demonstrators gathered in Jeddah city to protest the city’s poor infrastructure after deadly floods hit the city and killed 11 people. The police stopped the protest after about 15 minutes and arrested 30 to 50 people.
Saudi Arabia has been affected by its own protests against the Arab Spring since 2011 . In response, King Abdullah announced on February 22, 2011 a series of benefits for citizens of $ 36 billion, of which $ 10.7 billion was for residential use. No political reform was announced under the package, although some prisoners charged with financial crimes have been pardoned. On March 18 of the same year, King Abdullah announced a $ 93 billion package that included 500,000 new homes at a cost of $ 67 billion and created 60,000 new security jobs. .
Although all male local elections were held on September 29, 2011 , Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the 2015 local elections and to serve on the Shura council.