Friday, September 10, 2021

Food & Drinks in Pakistan

AsiaPakistanFood & Drinks in Pakistan

Food in Pakistan

Pakistani cuisine is a sophisticated fusion of South Asian ethnic culinary traditions. Pakistani cuisine is renowned for its richness, with fragrant and occasionally spicy tastes, and some dishes use a lot of oil, which adds to the richness and fullness of the mouthfeel and flavor. It is quite similar to Indian cuisine but has some Afghan, Central Asian, and Persian elements; you are likely to have had it in your country since Indian and Pakistani cuisine are often offered together in restaurants. Pakistani cuisine differs significantly from area to region. Many so-called Pakistani or Indian restaurants in the Western hemisphere serve “Pakistani food” inspired by Mughlai cuisine, a style developed by the royal kitchens of the historical Mughal Empire, and Punjabi regional cuisine, though the degree of authenticity in relation to authentic Mughlai or Punjabi cooking is sometimes variable at best and dubious at worst. The ethnic and cultural variety of Pakistan is reflected in the country’s cuisine, which differs significantly from area to region. Food from the eastern regions of Punjab and Sindh, as well as Mughlai cuisine, are comparable to Northern Indian cuisines and may be highly seasoned and spicy, as is typical of the South Asian region’s flavors. In some areas of Pakistan, such as Balochistan, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, mild aromatic spices and less oil are used, indicating similarities with the cuisines of Afghanistan, Iran, and Central Asia. Pork is prohibited in Pakistan due to Muslim beliefs, and it is neither eaten nor marketed.

Main courses in Pakistan Food is served with flatbread, often known as wheat bread, or rice, and mainly comprises of curry dishes. Salad is usually served as a side dish to accompany the main meal rather than as an appetizer. At the conclusion of a meal, assorted fresh fruit or sweets are served. In comparison to other South Asian cuisines, meat plays a significantly larger part in Pakistani cuisine. According to a study from 2003, the typical Pakistani ate three times as much meat as the average Indian. The most common meats are goat or mutton, beef, and chicken, with goat or mutton being especially popular for kebab meals and the traditional beef shank dish nihari. Seafood is seldom eaten in big quantities. Depending on where you are and who your chef is, food may vary from mild to spicy. So, before you start eating, express your choice. At general, the majority of the food provided in high-end hotels is also accessible in markets (but European-style food is generally reserved for the former).

The Pakistani propensity for liberal use of a variety of spices, as well as powerful raw green chilis or red chili powder that will bring tears to the eyes of the uninformed, has earned Pakistani cuisine a well-deserved reputation for being spicy. The level of spice varies greatly throughout the country: Punjabi cuisine is known for being spicy, while Northern Areas cuisine is moderate.

Start gently if you want to appreciate the native cuisine. Don’t attempt everything at the same time. You may grow used to spicy cuisine within a few weeks. Simply state that you do not want your meal to be hot. Most tourists are enticed to try at least one of the spicy concoctions, and the sting is usually well worth the effort.

Cuisine

Pakistani cuisine differs significantly from area to region. In Pakistan, culinary art is a combination of Middle Eastern, Iranian, Afghan, Indian, and Turkish elements that reflect the country’s past as well as regional differences in cooking techniques. Food with unique local ingredients and flavors is accessible in rural regions and villages, while urban centers provide an amalgamation of dishes from all across the nation. Aside from the primary meals of salan, which may be made with or without meat and cooked with vegetables or lentils, there are a range of regional specialities including karahi, biryani, and tikka, which come in a variety of shapes and flavors and are served with naan, chapati, and roti.

Pakistani cuisine is a fusion of culinary traditions from throughout the Indian subcontinent, with roots in the royal kitchens of Mughal rulers in the sixteenth century. It has some parallels to North Indian cuisine, but Pakistani meat dishes are more varied. Pakistani cuisine makes extensive use of spices, herbs, and seasonings. Most meals include garlic, ginger, turmeric, red chili, and garam masala, and curry is often used in home cuisine. Chapati, a thin flat wheat bread eaten with curry, meat, veggies, and lentils, is a staple meal. Rice is also widely utilized; it may be eaten plain or cooked with seasonings, and it can also be found in sweet recipes.

Varieties of bread

Pakistani breads (known as roti) include chapatti (unleavened bread), paratha (pan-fried layered roti), naan (baked in a clay tandoori oven), puri (deep-fried and puffed up bread), and many more. A typical meal consists of one or more gravy dishes and rotis, which are eaten together by breaking off a piece of roti, dipping it in the gravy, and eating it. The majority of Pakistan’s heartland subsists on naan, roti, rice, and lentils (dal), which are cooked in a variety of ways and spiced to taste. Spiced yogurt (raita) and either fresh chutney or a small piece of very pungent pickle (achar) are typically served on the side, a highly acquired taste for most tourists – try combining it with curry, not eating it straight.

Pakistanis consume wheat flour bread as part of their regular diet. Pakistan offers a broad range of breads, many of which are baked in a tandoor, a traditional clay oven. The tandoori cooking technique is popular in both rural and urban Pakistan, and it also has significant origins in neighboring Iran and Afghanistan.

Flatbreads (also known as Naan) come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

  • Naan – A soft and thick flat bread that frequently requires the use of specialized clay ovens (tandoors) and cannot be prepared adequately on domestic stoves. Usually prepared with white flour and leavened with yeast. Sesame seeds may be sprinkled on certain types, such as the Roghani and Peshwari. Naans are seldom, if ever, prepared at home since they need tandoor cooking and preparation. There are many different types of plain and filled naans available across Pakistan, and each area or city may have its own speciality. Naan is a versatile bread that goes well with just about everything. In several areas of the nation, for example,’saada naan’ or ‘plain naan’ is often served with Sri-Paya (cow’s head and totters) or Nihari (slow cooked beef stew) for breakfast. It’s easy to spot because of its bigger, white exterior.
  • Roti – All across Pakistan, they are very popular. Tandoori rotis are cooked in a tandoor, a clay oven, and eaten with almost anything. Many homes in rural Pakistan have their own tandoors, while those that do not utilize a common one. Bread shops, also known as “nanbai”/”tandoor” stores, are quite prevalent in metropolitan Pakistan and provide fresh, tandoor baked breads to home consumers. This is a handmade bread with less taste than naan. It’s a low-cost option that’s available in minutes.
  • Chapatti – A handmade bread that is considerably thinner than naan and often prepared from unprocessed wheat and ready in minutes. The most frequent bread prepared in urban households without access to a tandoor. Chapatis are made in a ‘tava,’ which is a flat or slightly convex dark-colored pan. Chapatis are thin, unleavened flatbreads prepared from whole wheat flour. Tortillas are probably the closest thing to chapatis, but chapatis are a little thicker. A variation known as ‘romali roti’ (lit. handkerchief bread) is very thin and big.
  • Paratha – The roti in this variation is very greasy. If you’re going out to eat, it’s usually good, but watch out for health issues; it’s frequently dripping with oil since it’s intended to be part of a heavy dinner. Cooking paratha with pure oil, such as “desi ghee,” makes it taste even better. A ghee-based, flat, layered bread baked on a ‘tava’. In rural regions, however, a ‘tandoor’-based variant is also popular. The dough for parathas is quite similar to that of pastry dough. Parathas are said to have originated in Punjab, where farmers would have a substantial breakfast of parathas with freshly churned butter and buttermilk to be ready for a long day of labor. Parathas, on the other hand, have become a popular morning item throughout the nation. Along with the basic layered form, several filled variants are popular, including ‘Aloo ka Paratha’ (Potato Packed Parathas), ‘Mooli ka Paratha’ (Radish stuffed parathas), and ‘Qeemah stuffed paratha’ (Ground meat stuffed paratha).
  • Sheer Mal – This bread has waffle-like squares punched in it and is gently sweetened and lightly greased. It is often regarded as the most desirable bread and is considered a delicacy by the majority of people. Often used in conjunction with nihari. Another morning variant of sheermal is similar to the Italian Panettone (albeit in a flat naan-like form), but with dried fruits and candies added. It’s a celebratory bread made with milk (‘sheer’) and butter, with candied fruits thrown in for good measure. Sheermal, along with taftan, is a common component of the cuisine given during weddings. It is often sweetened and is especially popular among children.
  • Taftan – It’s similar to a’sheer mal,’ but with a puffy ring around it. This is a tandoor-baked leavened wheat bread with saffron and a little quantity of cardamom powder. The Taftan produced in Pakistan is somewhat sweeter and richer than that produced in Iran.
  • Kulcha – This is a kind of naan that is often served with chickpeas and potatoes in Punjab’s metropolitan areas.
  • Roghani Naan – (lit. Buttered Naan) It’s a popular Naan variation that’s topped with white sesame seeds and fried in a little quantity of oil.
  • Puri – This is a fried breakfast bread prepared from white flour. Served with sweet semolina halwa and/or gravy, if desired (made out of chickpeas and potatoes). Puri is a very urban notion in Pakistan, and puris are not found in any rural cuisine. However, in urban Pakistan, where it is occasionally served at shift carts or specialized breakfast shops, Halwa Puri has become a popular weekend or holiday meal.

You may have observed that ‘Naan’ is often utilized to take up liquid and soft foods such as shorba in curries and beans. In Pakistan, forks and knives are not frequently used during meals (unless someone is eating rice or is dining out). Attempting to chop a naan with a knife may cause some amusement in your immediate vicinity. Observing others may be beneficial.

There are far too many shorbas (sauces and soups) to list.

Vegetarian dishes

The following are some of the most popular and frequent vegetarian dishes:

Daal is a yellow (or red) lentil “soup” or a brown (slightly sour) lentil “soup.” Typically, it isn’t too seasoned. All socioeconomic classes share this trait.

X + ki sabzi – A vegetarian dish using the letter ‘X’ as the primary ingredient.

Aloo gobi, Baingan, Karela, Bhindi, and Saag are some of the other foods available.

Pulses/lentil dishes

Pulses, often known as legumes, play a significant role in Pakistani cuisine. While lentils (daal) and chickpeas (channa) are common components in homestyle cuisine, they are generally thought of as low-cost food sources. As a result, they are usually not offered to dinner guests or on important events. Combining meat with lentils and pulses, whether in basic preparations or complex meals like haleem, is a uniquely Pakistani touch not often seen in neighboring India, where a large portion of the population is vegetarian.

Rice dishes

Pakistan is a significant rice consumer. In Pakistan, basmati rice is the most popular kind of rice. Rice dishes are very popular in Pakistan. Rice dishes are often served alongside other meals. Plain boiled rice (Chawal) with Dal is the most basic meal in Pakistani cuisine (Lentil). Plain cooked rice cooked with dal is known as kichdi. Plain cooked rice served with Karhi is known as Karhi chawal.

Biryani, a famous Pakistani meal, is made with chunks of beef, lamb, chicken, fish, or shrimp. There are numerous different types of biryani, such as Lahori and Sindhi biryani. Tahiri, a kind of vegetarian biryani, is also quite popular. Except for rice-based meals, all major courses are served with bread. To eat, a tiny piece of bread is ripped off and used to scoop and hold small amounts of the main meal with the right hand. Pickles prepared from mangoes, carrots, lemon, and other fruits and vegetables are also frequently used to add flavor to the meal. The use of saffron and other spices enhances the aroma of the biryani. Guests of honor in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa are often given feasts consisting of mountains of spicy rice mixed with chunks of gently cooked lamb. Dried fruit, nuts, and whole spices like cloves, saffron, and cardamom are often included in these pulaos. The roots of such rice meals may be found in Central Asia and the Middle East.

Meat dishes

In comparison to other South Asian cuisines, meat plays a significantly larger part in Pakistani cuisine and is a key component in the majority of Pakistani meals. Bovine, ovine, poultry, and shellfish meals are among the meat dishes served in Pakistan. The beef is typically chopped into 3 cm pieces and stewed. Kebabs, Qeema, and other meat dishes are made using minced meat. The most common meats are goat or mutton, beef, and chicken, with goat or mutton being especially popular for kebab meals and the traditional beef shank dish nihari. Pulses, lentils, and grains are also used in the meat recipes.

Tandoori chicken, cooked in a clay oven known as a tandoor, is arguably the most well-known Pakistani cuisine, having originated in Pakistan’s Punjab province.

The list goes on and on, but here are a few examples:

  • Roasted Chicken (Whole) – A whole roasted chicken called as ‘charga’ in the region.

Aloo Gosht (Potatoes with Meat) – Potato chunks in a sauce with goat meat. Spice levels vary. One example of a basic meal with a variety of ingredients + Gosht (meat).

Nihari- Beef that has been cooked for a long time. Served with Nan, Sheer Mal, or Taftan, this is a delicacy. Few people will be able to get their hands on this if it isn’t spiced. Serve with lemon and fried onion, and be aware that this is one of the spiciest curries available. Thick gravy prepared with spices from the area. It’s prepared with both beef and chicken. It’s greasy and spicy. Almost universally available.

Paye (or ‘Siri Paye’) is a bone-marrow stew made from goat/beef/mutton bones (usually hooves and skull). Extremely healthy, and usually served with naan for breakfast. Typically eaten in a bowl or similar dish, salan is very moist. Dip slices of naan into it and serve with a spoon on top. It may be difficult to eat.

Korma is a Mughlai traditional meal prepared with chicken or mutton and served with nan or bread. It is extremely famous in Pakistan.

Barbecue and kebabs

For ages, beef and grilled meat have played a significant role in the Pakistani culture. Sajji is a Baluchi dish consisting of lamb and spices from Western Pakistan that has gained popularity throughout the nation. Building a big outside fire and slowly roasting birds is another Balochi meat dish. The birds are put on skewers that are planted into the ground near to the fire, allowing the radiant heat to gently cook the chickens. Today, kebabs are a mainstay of Pakistani cuisine, with numerous variations available throughout the nation. Each area has its unique kebab variations, although several, such as Seekh kebab, Chicken Tikka, and Shami kebab, are particularly popular throughout the nation. Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa kebabs are generally similar to Afghan kebabs, with salt and coriander as the only seasonings. Karachi and the broader Sindh area are known for its spicy kebabs, which are typically marinated in a combination of spices, lemon juice, and yogurt. Barbecued cuisine is also quite popular in Punjabi cities like Lahore, Gujranwala, and Sialkot.

Different kebabs abound in Pakistani cuisine. In kababs, meats like as beef, chicken, lamb, and fish are utilized. The following are some of the most popular kebabs:

  • Barbecued chicken with a spiciness on the outside. It resembles a massive red chicken leg and thigh. All meat eaters will like this. Is accessible almost everywhere.
  • A long skewer of minced beef combined with spices and seasonings is known as a Seekh Kebab.
  • Shami Kebabs are a softer version of seekh kababs, with a circular patty of seasoned beef and lentils.
  • Peshawar’s speciality is the Chapli Kebab, a spicy circular kabab.
  • Chicken Kabab – A popular kabab that comes with or without a bone.
  • Lamb Kabab – This kabab is made entirely of lamb meat and is typically served in cubes.
  • Bihari kebab is a beef skewer seasoned with herbs and spices.
  • Tikka kebab – Beef, lamb, or chicken kebabs sliced into cubes, marinated in yogurt, then cooked over coals.
  • Boti kebab is a kebab composed with beef fillets. Green papaya is often marinated with the meat to help tenderize it.
  • Shawarma consists of a kebab or lamb strips wrapped in a naan and served with chutney and salad.
  • Shashlik – marinated grilled baby lamb chops (generally from the leg).

Desserts

Peshawari ice cream, Sheer Khurma, Kulfi, Falooda, Kheer, Rasmalai, Phirni, Zarda, Shahi Tukray, and Rabri are also popular desserts. In Pakistan, sweetmeats are eaten on a variety of celebratory occasions. Gulab jamun, barfi, ras malai, kalakand, jalebi, and panjiri are some of the most popular. Multani, sohan halvah, and hubshee halvah are among the many halvah varieties available in Pakistani sweets.

During Eid ul-Fitr, kheer prepared with roasted seviyaan (vermicelli) instead of rice is popular. Gajraila is a traditional winter dessert prepared with shredded carrots cooked in milk, sugar, and green cardamom, then sprinkled with almonds and dried fruit.

  • Enjoy a wide range of flavors; ice cream comes in a wide range of flavors, including the classic pistachio-flavored Kulfi; Falooda is a delicious rosewater delicacy that is a favorite summer drink throughout the nation. Kulfi is a traditional Indian ice cream made with vermicelli, pistachio nuts, and rosewater. Every ice cream store has its own variation.
  • In Pakistan, Shirini or Mithai is the general term for a range of sweet delicacies. The sweets are quite popular in Pakistan and are known by several names depending on where you travel. Small bites at a time are preferable than big portions, which may be impolite and too sugary.
  • Kulfi is a classic Indian ice cream that is prepared with cream and other nuts.
  • If you wish to go to an ice cream parlor, “Polka Parlor,” “Jamin Java,” and “Hot Spot” are some excellent western ice cream parlors in Lahore. The ‘Chaman’ ice cream shop across town is famous for classic ice creams.
  • A delicious delicacy known as halwa. Halwa is prepared in a variety of ways, such using eggs, carrots, flour, or dried fruits. Semolina, ghee, and sugar are used to make the halwas, which are then topped with dried fruits and nuts. Carrot halwa (also known as gaajar ka halwa) and halva prepared from delicate bottle gourds, as well as chanay ki daal, are popular. Karachi halva is a specialty delicacy from Karachi, whereas Firni or Kheer is similar to vanilla custard but made differently. In India, the Sohan Halwa is equally well-known. Habshi halwa, a dark brown milk-based halwa, is also well-known.
  • A cheese-based dish known as gulab jamun. It is often served during festivals and big festivities such as weddings, joyful occasions, and Muslim Eid ul-Fitr.

International fast food franchises have also sprung up throughout Pakistan, in addition to local eateries. KFC, Pizza Hut, McDonalds, Subway, Nandos, Mr.Cod, Papa Johns, Dominoes, and others are among them. There are more European chains than there are in the United States.

Pakistani fast food

Pakistani snacks are quick-to-prepare, spicy, and typically fried foods served with tea or as a side dish with any of the meals in Pakistan. A particular snack may be part of a local culture, and its preparation and/or popularity may differ from one location to the next. Hawkers make and sell these delicacies on footpaths, bazaars, railway stations, and other such locations, but they may also be offered in restaurants. Dahi bhala, chaat, chana masala, Bun kebab, pakora, and papar are other popular snacks. Katchauri, pakoras (either neem or besan (chickpea) pakoras), gol gappay, samosas (vegetable or meat), bhail puri or daal seu, and egg rolls are among the others. Pistachios and pine nuts, for example, are often consumed at home. These snacks are usually smaller than a normal meal and are consumed in between meals.

Tipping in Pakistan

In Pakistan, tipping is required everywhere, particularly in restaurants, and it is always regarded a good habit in the nation, therefore tip between 5-10% in sit-down restaurants.

Eating with your hands (rather than utensils such as forks and spoons) is extremely popular in Pakistan. There is one fundamental etiquette guideline to follow, especially in non-urban Pakistan: Only use your right hand. It goes without saying that you should wash your hands thoroughly before and after eating. The fundamental method for all kinds of breads is to hold the item down with your fingers and rip out pieces with your middle and thumb. After that, you may dip the pieces in sauce or use them to pick up portions before stuffing them into your mouth. In Pakistan, unlike India, a spoon is frequently used to consume rice meals.

Drinks in Pakistan

Drinking tap water may be dangerous. Some businesses, however, have installed water filters/purifiers, in which case the water is safe to drink. A better option is bottled drinking water, often known as mineral water in Pakistan. When purchasing bottled water, check to see whether the cap seal has been broken; if it has, it is a telltale indication of tampering or that unscrupulous sellers reuse old bottles and fill them with tap water, which is usually hazardous for foreign visitors to consume without first boiling it. Bottled water brands like as Aquafina (by PepsiCo) and Nestle are readily available, and a 1.5 litre bottle costs Rs 80. In semi-urban or rural regions, it’s a good idea to request boiling water.

The water of Pakistan’s north-eastern provinces, particularly Swat, Kaghan, and Gilgit, is reported to have a great flavor. Request bottled water whenever feasible, and stay away from anything cold that may contain water.

Try a native limca cola, which when opened produces a “pop” sound. Ice cream soda, Lychee, Orange, Raspberry, Apple Sidra, Vino, Double cola, and Bubble up are among the flavors offered from Pakola, Pakistan’s leading soft drink brand. Try Lassi, a traditional yoghurt drink that may be served plain or sweet, and is occasionally flavored or even blended with fresh fruit. Rooh-Afza is a delicious, red-colored herbal drink. Sugar Cane Juice is best served fresh, since it is extracted by mechanical means. You may also like the Falouda and Gola Ganda, which are made with crushed ice and different syrups.

Sweet beverages are widely accessible throughout the day in the warmer southern regions. Look for street sellers with genuine or fake fruits dangling from their rooftops. Lassi is also available at certain milk/yogurt stores. If you’re eating “bhindi” or another rich meal, ask for meethi lassi, a sweet yogurt drink. You may also have a salty lassi, which tastes excellent and is comparable to the Arabic Laban. There’s also a sweet drink called Mango Lassi, which is prepared with yogurt, mango pulp, and mango chunks and is extremely rich and thick.

Non-Muslim tourists may purchase alcohol (both imported and local) in off-licenses and bars in most high-end hotels. Murree Brewery produces alcoholic beer in the area (who also produce non-alcoholic beverages including juices). In Pakistan, Muslims are banned from purchasing, possessing, or using alcohol. There is a thriving illicit market across the nation, and the authorities often turn a blind eye to what goes on behind closed doors. The alcholol may be bought at authorized liquir stores in Karachi and other areas of Sindh. If you are a foreigner searching for alcohol, you may call Murree Brewery’s customer service department for help.

Tea varieties

Pakistanis drink a lot of tea, which is known as “chai” in most Pakistani dialects. You can buy tea in a variety of flavors almost everywhere. Green and black teas, both with milk, are popular in various regions of Pakistan. In Pakistani cuisine, it is one of the most popular drinks. Different areas of Pakistan have their own distinct flavors and variations, resulting in a varied tea culture in Pakistan.

  • The significant prevalence of Muhajir cuisine in Karachi has made the Masala chai variant extremely popular.
  • Doodh Pati Chai is a creamy, thick tea. Tea leaves are cooked with milk and sugar, and occasionally cardamom is added for flavor. This is a local version of a builder’s tea that is very sweet. In Punjab, it is very popular.
  • “Sabz chai” and “kahwah,” in that order. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Pashtun region of Balochistan, kahwah is often offered after every meal, while in Kashmir, it is commonly served with saffron and nuts.
  • Black tea with lemon is known as Sulaimani chai.
  • Kashmiri chai, also known as “noon chai,” is a pink, milky tea with pistachios and cardamom that is served at weddings and sold at numerous kiosks throughout the winter.
  • Salty buttered Tibetan style tea is popular in northern Pakistan (Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan).

Beverages

Aside from tea, there are a variety of other beverages that may be found in Pakistani cuisine. They are all non-alcoholic since alcohol use is forbidden in Islam. Drinks like coffee and soft drinks were popular in Pakistan throughout the twentieth century. Soft drinks are extremely popular with Pakistani dinners today.

  • Lassi is a milk and yoghurt drink with a sweet or salty flavor. In the Punjab area, lassi is a traditional drink.
  • Gola ganda – a concoction of several flavors served over crushed ice.
  • Sugarcane juice (Ganney ka ras) — During the summer, you may find fresh sugarcane juice at a variety of locations, as well as a variety of fresh fruit juices. Be cautious, since fresh juice, in addition to unsanitary ice, may include a variety of pathogens. Juice sellers don’t always clean their equipment correctly, and they don’t always wash their fruits.
  • Lemonade is a refreshing drink (Nimbu pani)
  • Sherbet is a refreshing dessert (A syrup mixed in water)
  • Lemonade Sikanjabeen (Mint is also added)
  • Sherbet with almonds
  • Sherbet-e-Sandal is a drink prepared with sandalwood essence.
  • Kashmiri chai/Gulabi chai is a milky tea with a sweet or salty flavor and a pink color.
  • Sathu is a popular Punjabi drink.
  • Sardai – A mixture of various nuts and kishmish Thaadal – A sweet drink from Sindh Thaadal – Thaadal – Thaadal – Thaadal – Thaadal – Thaadal – Thaa

Alcohol

Alcohol use is usually frowned upon. Murree Brewery is the sole recognized manufacturer of Pakistani beer that is extensively distributed across the country. Karachi has a relaxed attitude regarding alcohol, with wine stores selling any brand of booze.