Although frequent buses connect Zakho and Dohuk and cost about USD2, public transportation is scarce in Kurdistan. Throughout the day, shared taxis depart from Dohuk towards Erbil and other destinations. The route between Dohuk and Arbil passes close to Mosul but does not exit Kurdish territory, making it secure, albeit a little too close for comfort.
Shared taxis may be the safest mode of transportation in Iraqi Kurdistan, since the drivers have no desire to leave the region.
Driving at night may be a safer option than driving during the day, but there are a few guidelines to follow:
City centers should be avoided. Even while the majority of Iraqis are fast asleep by midnight, those who remain up are almost definitely up to naught good.
Keep an eye out for military personnel. You may be perceived for a hostile/troublemaker if you’re out late at night and successfully attempting to fit in with the locals. You will be regarded as a suspect at checkpoints, and you must behave cautiously until they determine you are not a target.
If you come across military personnel, make sure your lights are turned on, your hazards/flashers are turned on, you slow down or pull over to the side of the road, and you obey any and all orders given to you. If a stop sign, green laser, or other signal is aimed at you or in your general vicinity, it is best to err on the side of caution rather than risk being fired at.
If you’re traveling to Iraq and meet acquaintances along the way, be VERY CAREFUL about accepting a ride. Make sure they don’t leave Iraqi Kurdistan province if they accept the offer.