Saturday, September 18, 2021

Bangladesh | Introduction

AsiaBangladeshBangladesh | Introduction

In the summer of 1947, combined leaders of the Congress, the Indian-Muslim League, and the United Kingdom partitioned British India, forming the Commonwealth of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of India. After a violent nine-month battle, East Bengali-speaking Pakistan broke away from its union with western Pakistan, which was dominated by the Punjab, to form Bangladesh in 1971. Despite the fact that Bangladesh became an independent nation in 1971, it has a long history and has long been regarded as a crossroads of history and culture. The world’s longest sea beach, numerous mosques, the world’s biggest mangrove forest, fascinating tribal communities, and a plethora of elusive animals may all be found here. Bangladeshis are extremely kind and hospitable people who devote personal hospitality to personal money, despite their country’s relative poverty in comparison to its prosperous South Asian neighbor, India.

Some of the most important industries are ready-made clothes, textiles, medicines, agricultural goods, shipbuilding, and fishing. The divide between rich and poor is widening, and the middle class is disappearing quickly, as it does across Asia, particularly in cities like Dhaka and Chittagong, as it shifts between working-class areas like Gulshan and Baridhara.


Bangladesh’s climate is subtropical monsoon. Winter (December-January), spring (February-March), summer (April-May), monsoon (June-July), autumn (August-September), and late autumn (October-November) are the six seasons of the year. In the winter, the average temperature in the nation varies from 9 to 29 degrees Celsius, while in the summer, it ranges from 21 to 34 degrees Celsius. Annual precipitation ranges from 160 to 200 cm in the west, 200 to 400 cm in the southeast, and 250 to 400 cm in the northeast. Cyclones of category three or four are uncommon (especially during the cold winter months of January to March), but they may still inflict extensive infrastructure and electricity outages, particularly in coastal regions. It is not advised that you travel in the southern portion of the nation during this season (Khulna, Bagerhat, Chittagong, Cox’s Bazaar).

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Because it is extremely humid in the summer, cotton clothing is recommended. During the rainy season, be especially cautious: even major cities like Dhaka and Chittagong may be rapidly flooded by heavy rains, and exposed drains or missing sewer covers can be deadly. From October through February is the ideal time to visit.


Bangladesh is split into three geographical areas. The lush Ganges-Brahmaputra delta covers the majority of the nation. Madhupur and the Barind plateaus are responsible for portions of the country’s northwest and center. Evergreen mountain ranges may be found in the northeast and southeast. The confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers, as well as their tributaries, forms the Ganges delta. The Ganges flows into the Brahmaputra’s major river, the Jamuna, and then into the Meghna, which flows into the Bay of Bengal. Rivers deposit alluvial material as they overrun their banks, creating some of the world’s most fertile plains. Bangladesh has 57 transboundary rivers, which makes resolving water-related issues politically challenging in most instances, such as in India’s lower riverine state.

Bangladesh is mostly made up of fertile terrain. Most of Bangladesh is less than 12 meters (39.4 feet) above sea level, and it is predicted that around 10% of the land would be inundated if the sea level rose by one meter (3 meters). Forests comprise 17 percent of the land, while hill systems cover another 12 percent. The significance of the country’s wetlands to worldwide environmental research is enormous.

Since the 1960s, efforts to “construct with nature” have been undertaken in southeastern Bangladesh. The building of crossing dams has resulted in a natural build-up of silt, resulting in the formation of new lands. In the late 1970s, the Bangladeshi government started to encourage the development of this new area with the help of Dutch funding. The building of roads, sewers, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets, and ponds, as well as the allocation of land to settlers, have all become part of the endeavor. The initiative will have distributed 27,000 acres (10,927 hectares) to 21,000 households by the autumn of 2010. Keokradong, near the Myanmar border, has a height of 1,064 meters (3,491 feet), making it Bangladesh’s highest mountain.


On May 3, 1994, Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity. The country’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan must be reviewed by 2014.

Bangladesh is situated in the Indomalaya natural zone. A long coastline, many rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, mountainous woods, deciduous moist forests, swampy freshwater forests, and flat areas with tall grass are all part of its ecosystem. Bangladesh’s plain is known for its rich alluvial soil, which allows for vast agriculture. Villages are frequently buried in forests of mango, jaca, bamboo, betel nut, coconut, and date palm, and the land is characterized by luxuriant flora. There are 6000 plant species, including 5000 flowering plants. Many aquatic plants may be found in water bodies and wetland systems. During the monsoon, water lilies and lotuses bloom in abundance. There are 50 wildlife sanctuaries in the nation.

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A significant portion of the Sundarbans, the world’s biggest mangrove forest, is found in Bangladesh. It is located in the southwestern coastal region and spans an area of 6,000 km2. The south, east, and west zones are the three protected sanctuaries. The woodland has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Wetlands, a unique environment, may be found in Sylhet’s north-eastern area. Tropical and subtropical coniferous woods, a swamp freshwater forest, and mixed deciduous forests are also included. Chittagong’s southeastern area is covered with evergreen and semi-evergreen mountain forests. The flat salt forest that stretches along the districts of Gazipur, Tangail, and Mymensingh in Bangladesh’s central region. The sole coral reef in the nation is on St. Martin’s Island.

Bangladesh’s woods, marshes, woodlands, and hills are home to a diverse range of animals. The overwhelming majority of animals reside in a 150,000 km2 area. The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther, and fisherman are some of the Sundarbans’ major predators. The Asian elephant, gibbon hoolock, Asian black bear, and different colored eastern hornbills may all be found in Bangladesh’s north and east.

Chital deer may be found in abundance in the southwest’s woods. The crowned langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons, and water monitors are among the other creatures. Irrawaddy dolphins and Gangetic dolphins are found in great numbers in Bangladesh. According to a 2009 census, there are 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins living in Bangladesh’s coastal waterways. Amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19), and marine mammals are all found in abundance in the nation (5). It is home to 628 different bird species.

Several creatures, including a rhinoceros horn and two rhinoceros horns, and the common peacock, went extinct in Bangladesh during the past century. Deforestation is limited to some degree since the human population is concentrated in metropolitan areas. Natural ecosystems have been endangered by rapid urbanization. Despite the fact that many places are legally protected, this expansion threatens a significant portion of Bangladesh’s biodiversity. Bangladesh’s Environmental Conservation Act was passed in 1995. Several places, including wetlands, woods, and rivers, have been recognized as environmentally important zones by the government. The Sundarbans Tiger Project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are two important conservation efforts.


Bangladesh’s population is estimated to be between 162 and 168 million people, according to the latest current statistics (2015). However, the 2011 census projected a population of 142.3 million, which is much lower than previous projections (2007-2010) of a population of 150 to 170 million in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is therefore the world’s seventh most populated country. The population was just 44 million in 1951. When extremely tiny nations and city-states are included, it is also the world’s most densely populated major country, ranking 11th in population density.

In the 1960s and 1970s, when Bangladesh’s population expanded from 65 to 110 million, it had one of the world’s fastest population growth rates. In the 1980s, with the promotion of birth control, the growth rate started to slow. The fertility rate is currently 2.55, which is lower than India’s (2.58) and Pakistan’s (2.58). (3.07). With 34% of the population being under the age of 15, and 5% being 65 or over, the population is quite youthful. In 2012, men and women’s life expectancy at birth was predicted to be 70 years. Despite the country’s tremendous economic development, approximately 26% of the population lives below the international poverty line, which implies they survive on less than $1.25 per day. Bengalis account for 98% of the population.

Indigenous people from the Chittagong Hill Tracts and other areas of northern Bangladesh are among the minorities. There are 11 tribal ethnic groups in the Hill Tracts, including the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki, Khiang, Khumi, Murang, Mru, Chak, Lushei, and Bawm. The Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasi, and Jaintia tribes live in the Sylhet Division. Garo people live in large numbers in the Mymensingh district. The Santal, Munda, and Oraon people live in Bangladesh’s northern area. Bangladesh also has a sizable Ismaili population.

During the Burmese military repressions between 1978 and 1991, the southeastern area experienced a large inflow of Rohingya refugees from Burma. Bangladesh closed its borders in 2012 in response to escalating sectarian violence in Rakhine State, fearing a third big refugee outflow. Burma The stranded Pakistanis, sometimes known as Biharis, have been a source of contention between Bangladesh and Pakistan. All second-generation Pakistanis born after 1971 were given full citizenship by the Bangladesh High Court in 2008. From 1975 until 1997, an indigenous struggle for autonomy in the Hill Tracts area resulted in rioting and insurrection. Although a peace treaty was reached in 1997, the area is still highly militarized.


With approximately 88 percent of the people subscribing to Islam, Bangladesh is the most religiously diverse country in the world. The majority of Bengali Muslims, the world’s second biggest ethnic minority, live in the nation. Sunni Muslims make up the majority of Bangladeshi Muslims, followed by Shiites and Ahmadis. Non-denominational Muslims make up around 4% of the Muslim population. Bangladesh, behind Indonesia and Pakistan, has the world’s fourth-largest Muslim population and is the world’s third-largest Muslim nation.

About 11% of the population is Hindu, with the majority being Hindu Bengali and a tiny ethnic component. Bangladesh’s Hindus are the country’s second biggest religious group and the world’s third largest Hindu community, behind those in India and Nepal. Hindus are concentrated in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong, and parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, with significant concentrations in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong, and portions of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Despite their declining numbers, Hindus remain Dhaka’s second biggest religious group, behind Muslims.

With 0.6 percent of the population, Buddhism is the third most popular religion. Buddhists in Bangladesh are mostly found among the ethnic groups of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, especially the Chakma, Marma, and Tanchangya peoples, although Bengali Buddhists may be found on the Chittagong Coast.

With 0.3 percent of the population, Christianity is the fourth most popular religion.

The remaining 0.1 percent of the population practices a variety of popular and animist faiths.

Sufism, which has a long history in Bangladesh, is practiced by a large number of individuals. The Bishwa Ijtema, which is held every year by the Tablighi Jamaat, is the biggest assembly of Muslims in the nation. After Hajj, Ijtema is the world’s second biggest Muslim gathering.

Bangladesh’s constitution proclaims Islam to be the official religion, although it forbids religious policy. Proclaim that Hindus, Buddhists, Christians, and individuals of all faiths are all equal. Bangladesh became the first legally secular nation in South Asia in early 1972. Bangladesh is described as a pluralistic secular democracy by the US State Department.


Bangladesh is a developing nation with a mixed market economy, and it is one of Next Eleven’s emerging markets. Bangladesh’s GDP was US $ 209 billion in 2014, with a per capita income of US $ 1,190. Bangladesh, after India and Pakistan, has the third biggest economy in South Asia and the second largest foreign exchange reserve after India. In 2015, the Bangladeshi diaspora donated $15.31 billion USD.

Bangladesh embraced socialist policies during its first five years of independence, which proved to be a major miscalculation on the part of the Awami League. The military dictatorship that followed, as well as the governments of the BNP and the Jatiya parties, restored open markets and encouraged the private sector in Bangladesh. Finance Minister Saifur Rahman initiated a series of liberal reforms in 1991. Bangladesh’s private sector has expanded quickly since then, with several conglomerates now helping to stimulate the economy. Textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, building materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing, and leather products are among the major industries. In recent years, export-oriented industry has grown, and the country’s exports have surpassed 30 billion dollars. UU In the years 2014-2015. Bangladesh’s garment industry generates the majority of the country’s export revenues. The nation also boasts a thriving business sector, which includes the Nobel Peace Prize-winning microfinance institution Grameen Bank and the world’s biggest non-governmental development organization, BRAC.

Inadequate energy supply is a significant stumbling block to development. Bangladesh’s growth is being hampered by bad governance, corruption, and weak public institutions, according to the World Bank. Bangladesh received a BB long-term credit rating from Standard & Poor’s in April 2010, which is lower than India but higher than Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

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