The Afghan culture dates back more than two millennia, at least to the period of the Achaemenid Empire around 500 BC. It is primarily a nomadic and tribal culture, with various areas of the country having their unique customs that represent the nation’s multicultural and multilingual character. Pashtun culture people live in Pashtunwali, an ancient way of life that has persisted to this day, in the southern and eastern area. The remainder of the nation is Persian and Turkish in culture. Pashtunwali was embraced by certain non-Pashtuns living near Pashtuns in a process known as Pashtunization (or Afghanization), while other Pashtuns were persecuted. Millions of Afghans who have lived in Pakistan and Iran over the last 30 years have been affected by the cultures of their neighbors.
Afghans are proud of their culture, country, origins, religion, and independence. They are regarded with worry and contempt, like other climbers, for their high regard for personal dignity, devotion to their tribe, and readiness to resolve conflicts. Because tribal warfare and civic instability have always been one of their primary professions, their individualism has made it difficult for outsiders to subjugate them. Tony Heathcote thinks that the tribal system is the greatest method to manage huge groups of people in a geographically challenging region and in a culture with a materialistic lifestyle. It is believed that there are 60 tribes, mostly Pashtun, and that there are approximately 2-3 million Afghan nomads.
The country has a complicated past that has been preserved in its current cultures or in the shape of many languages and monuments. Many of the historic sites, however, were destroyed during the previous conflicts. The Taliban, who saw idol worshippers as a threat, demolished the two renowned Bamiyan Buddhas. Nonetheless, archaeologists continue to discover Buddhist relics in different areas of the nation, some of which date back to the second century. This suggests that Buddhism was widely practiced in Afghanistan. Herat, Kandahar, Ghazni, Mazar-i-Sharif, and Zarang are other historical cities. Hari Rivervalley’s Jam Minaret is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Cape Protected Area in Kandahar, a city established by Alexander and the first capital of Afghanistan, has a purported cloak worn by the Prophet Muhammad of Islam. The Citadel of Alexander in the western city of Herat has recently been restored and is a famous tourist destination. The shrine of Hazrat Ali, which many think is where Ali was buried, is located in the country’s north. The Afghan Ministry of Information and Culture is restoring 42 ancient sites in Ghazni until 2013, when the province will be designated as the capital of Islamic civilisation. Kabul is home to the National Museum of Afghanistan.
Despite poor literacy, traditional Persian and Pashtun poetry is significant in Afghan culture. Poetry has traditionally been one of the most significant educational foundations of the area, especially at the cultural level. Rumi, Rabi’a Balkhi, Sanai, Jami, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Khalilullah Khalili, and Parween Pazhwak are among the notable poets.
Media and entertainment
The Afghan media published the first newspaper in 1906, at the turn of the twentieth century. Radio Kabul provided local radio services in the 1920s. Afghanistan’s national television station was established in 1974, but it was closed down in 1996 due to the Taliban’s strict control over the media. Since 2002, press restrictions have progressively been relaxed, and private media has become more diverse. The freedom of expression and the press are prohibited under the 2004 constitution, as is censorship, although it is prohibited to defame people or information that opposes Islamic values. Reporters Without Borders initiated the media climate as 156 out of 173 nations in 2008, with the first being the most free. There were about 400 periodicals, at least 15 Afghan television channels, and 60 radio stations. Foreign radio stations such as the Voice of America, the BBC World Service, and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE / RL) are broadcasting to the country.
Kabul was home to several masters of both traditional and contemporary Afghan music. Traditional music is particularly popular during the Nowruz (New Year) and National Independence Day festivities. Ahmad Zahir, Nashenas, Ustad Sarahang, Sarban, Ubaidullah Jan, Farhad Darya, and Naghma are just a few of the well-known Afghan artists. The majority of Afghans are used to viewing Bollywood Indian films and listening to their soundtracks. Salman Khan, Saif Ali Khan, Shah Rukh Khan (SRK), Aamir Khan, Feroz Khan, Kader Khan, Naseeruddin Shah, Zarine Khan, and Celina Jaitley are among the many Bollywood movie stars with Afghan ancestors. In addition, many Bollywood films, including Dharmatma, Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban, and Kabul Express, were shot in Afghanistan.