Monday, August 8, 2022

Culture Of Tunisia

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Culture Of Tunisia is mixed, having been shaped by external influences for a long time: Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards and French – they have all left their mark on the country.

Painting in Tunisia

The emergence of contemporary Tunisian painting is closely linked to the School of Tunis, founded by a group of artists from Tunisia united by the desire to incorporate indigenous subjects and reject the influence of oriental colonial painting. It was founded in 1949 and brought together Muslims, Christians and Jews from France and Tunisia. Pierre Bouchard was its main initiator along with Yahya Turki, Abdelaziz Gurki, Moses Levy, Ammar Farhat and Jules Le Rouche. As a result, some members turned to sources of Arab-Muslim aesthetic art, such as miniature paintings of Islamic architecture. The expressionist paintings of Amara de Bach, Jalal bin Abdullah and Ali bin Salem gained recognition, while abstract art captured the imagination of painters such as Edgar Nakash, Nero Levi and Hedi Turki.

After independence in 1956, the art movement in Tunisia was driven by the dynamics of nation-building and artists serving the state. A Ministry of Culture was established, led by ministers like Habib Boularès, who saw art and education and power. Artists gained international recognition like Hatem El Mekki or Zoubeir Turki and influenced a generation of new young painters. Sadok Goumek drew inspiration from the wealth of nations, while Monsef Ben Amor embraced fantasy. In another development, Youssef Rekik revisited the technique of painting on glass and founded Nja Mahdaoui calligraphy with its mystical dimension.

There are currently fifty art galleries hosting exhibitions by Tunisian and international artists. These galleries include the Yahia Gallery in Tunis and the Essaadi Gallery in Carthage.

Literature in Tunisia

Literature in Tunisia has two forms: Arabic and French. Arabic literature dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilisation in the region. It dates back to the 7th century with the arrival of Arab civilisation in the region. It is more important, both in volume and value, than French literature, which was introduced during the French protectorate from 1881.

Literary figures include Ali Duagi, who wrote more than 150 radio novels, 500 poems and folk songs and nearly 15 plays; the Arab novelist Khleif Bashir, whose dialogues written in a Tunisian dialect caused a scandal in the 1930s; Moncef Gachem; Mohamed Salah Ben Murad: Mohamed Salah Ben Murad and Mahmoud Messadi, among others.

In terms of poetry, Tunisian poetry typically opts for non-conformity and innovation with poets like Aboul-Qacem Echebbi.

As for literature in French, it is characterised by its critical approach. Contrary to the pessimism of Albert Memmi, who predicted that Tunisian literature was doomed to die young, many Tunisian writers are abroad, including Abdelwahab Meddeb, Bakri Tahar, Mustapha Tlili, Hele Beji or Mellah Fawzi. The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are central to their creative writing.

The national bibliography lists 1249 non-school books published in Tunisia in 2002, of which 885 titles were in Arabic. In 2006, this number had risen to 1,500 and in 2007 to 1,700. Almost a third of the books were published for children.

Music in Tunisia

At the beginning of the 20th century, musical activity was dominated by the liturgical repertoire associated with various religious brotherhoods and the secular repertoire consisting of instrumental pieces and songs in various Andalusian forms and styles of origin, essentially adopting features of the musical language. In 1930, the “Rachidia” was founded, which became very well-known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. The creation of a music school in 1934 help revive Arabic Andalusian music largely led to a social and cultural revival by the elite of the time, who were aware of the risks of losing the musical heritage and which they believed threatened the foundations of Tunisian national identity. It did not take long for an elite group of musicians, poets and scholars to come together. The creation of Radio Tunis in 1938 gave musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works.

Among the most important contemporary Tunisian artists are Saber Rebai, Dhafer Youssef, Belgacem Bouguenna, Sonia M’Barek and Latifa. Other notable musicians are Salah El Mahdi, Anouar Brahem and Lotfi Bouchnak.

Media & TV in Tunisia

For a long time, the TV media were under the rule of the establishment of the Tunisian Broadcasting Authority (ERTT) and its predecessor, Tunisian Radio and Television, founded in 1957. On 7 November 2006, President Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali announced the unbundling of the companies, which came into effect on 31 August 2007. Prior to this, RTCI controlled all public television stations (Tunis 1 and Tunis 2, replacing the disbanded Tunis 2), four national radio stations (Radio Télévision tunisienne Radio Culture, Radio Jeunesse and Radio RTCI), and five regional radio stations (Sfax, Monastir, Gafsa, Le Kef and Tataouine). Most of the programmes are in Arabic, but some are also in French. The growth of the private sector in radio and television has created numerous stations, including Radio Mosaique FM, Jawhara FM, Zaytuna FM, Hannibal TV, Ettounsiya TV and Nessma TV.

In 2007, there were approximately 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to 91 in 1987), 90% of which were owned by private institutions or independents. Tunisian political parties have the right to publish their own newspapers, but those of opposition parties have very limited circulations (such as Al Mawkif or Mouwatinoun). Before the recent democratic transition, freedom of the press was formally guaranteed in the constitution, but in practice almost all newspapers followed pro-government reporting. Critical approaches to the activities of the president, the government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (then in power) were suppressed. Essentially, the media was dominated by the state authorities through Agence Tunis Afrique Presse. This has since changed, as media censorship by the authorities has largely been abolished and self-censorship has decreased significantly. Nevertheless, the future of press and media freedom is still unclear due to the current legal framework and social and political culture.

Sport in Tunisia

Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. The Tunisian national football team, also known as “The Eagles of Carthage”, won the African Cup of Nations (ACN) held in Tunisia in 2004. They also represented Africa at the FIFA Confederations Cup 2005, held in Germany, but did not advance beyond the first round.

The first football league was the “Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1”. The main clubs were Espérance Sportive de Tunis, Étoile Sportive du Sahel, Club Africain, and Club Sportif Sfaxien.

The Tunisian national handball team has participated in several World Handball Championships, finishing fourth in 2005. The national league consists of about 12 teams and is dominated by ES.Sahel and Esperance S.Tunis. Tunisia’s most famous handball player is Wissem Humam. At the 2005 Tunis Handball Championship, Wissem Hmam was voted the tournament’s top scorer. The Tunisian national handball team won the Africa Cup eight times, making them the dominant team in the competition. The Tunisians won the 2010 Africa Cup in Egypt by beating the host country.

In recent years, the Tunisian national basketball team has become a top team in Africa. The team won the Afrobasket in 2011 and hosted Africa’s most important basketball event in 1965, 1987 and 2015.

In boxing, Victor Perez (“Young”) was world champion in the flyweight weight class in 1931 and 1932.

At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Tunisian Oussama Mellouli won a gold medal in the 1500m freestyle. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, he won a bronze medal in the 1500 m freestyle and a gold medal in the 15 km marathon.

In 2012, Tunisia participated in the Summer Paralympic Games for the seventh time in its history. It finished with 19 medals; 9 gold, 5 silver and 5 bronze. Tunisia ranked 14th in the Paralympic medal table and 5th in athletics.

Tunisia was suspended from the Davis Cup for 2014 because the Tunisian Tennis Federation found that Malek Jaziri was not allowed to play against an Israeli tennis player, Amir Weintraub. Francesco Ricci Bitti, President of the ITF, said: “In sport and in society, there is no prejudice of any kind to speak of. The The ITF Executive Committee decided to deliver a very clear message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind of behavior would not be tolerated.

How To Get in Tunisia

With plane The main international airport for regular flights to Tunisia is the International Airport Tunis-Carthage (IATA: TUN), which is located close to Tunis. From the airport, you can take a taxi to the centre of Tunis (be careful, the taxi meters may be tampered with). They are best stopped...

How To Travel Around Tunisia

With plane TunisAir express is the domestic airline branched off from TunisAir. There are flights between Tunis and Tozeur, Djerba and Gabès, and also those to Malta and Naples. The website is only available in French. Booking is possible online or through the Tunisair Express agencies. With car Tunisian highways are similar...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Tunisia

Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Denmark nationals of Dominica, the Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany and Gibraltar. Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,...

Destinations in Tunisia

Regions Northern Tunisia (Ariana, Bèja, Ben Arous, Bizerte, Jendouba, Mahdia, Manouba, Monastir, Nabeul, Siliana, Sousse, Tunis and Zaghouan) The capital Tunis, the entire northern coast and the mountains, as well as a number of very popular seaside resorts on the Mediterranean Sea.Central Coast Tunisia (Gabès, Madanine, Sfax and Sidi Bouzid)The...

Accommodation & Hotels in Tunisia

There are many good hotels in Tunisia. In the bigger cities there are many smaller hotels hidden in most of the streets. You can also rent a furnished flat. Some private people offer their own flats for rent, especially in summer. It is advisable to organise your accommodation online or by...

Weather & Climate in Tunisia

Tunisia has a Mediterranean climate in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The south of the country is desert. The relief in the north is mountainous, which, moving southwards, gives way to the hot, dry central plain. Along a line stretching east-west along the northern...

Things To See in Tunisia

History and archaeology Although Tunisia is now mostly known for its beach holidays, the country has an amazing heritage with some extraordinary archaeological remains to explore. Little remains of Carthage, but what is there is relatively well preserved compared to the rest of the ruins in Tunisia. This great city from...

Things To Do in Tunisia

Beaches Beach holidays in Tunisia are very popular, especially with Europeans. Some of the most important beach resorts are along the east coast, from La Goulette (near Tunis) to Monastir.The southern island of Djerba is an alternative. Many water sports activities are widely available or you can just relax and...

Food & Drinks in Tunisia

Food in Tunisia Tunisian cuisine is similar to Middle Eastern cuisine and is based on the traditions of the North African Maghreb, with couscous and marka stew (similar to Moroccan tagines) forming the backbone of most dishes. Unlike the Moroccan dish of the same name, the Tunisian tagine is an...

Money & Shopping in Tunisia

The national currency is the Tunisian dinar(TND). Typical banknotes are circulated in TND5 (green), TND10 (blue or brown), TND20 (purple-red), TND30 (orange) and TND50 (green and purple). The 2 nars are divided into 1000 milleme and the typical coins are TND5 (silver with copper insert), 1 nar (large - silver), 500...

Festivals & Events in Tunisia

1 January: New Year14 January: Revolution and Youth Day4 February: Mouled (anniversary of the Prophet) - (shifts by 11 days per year towards the beginning of the year, depending on the lunar calendar)20 March: Independence Day9 April: Martyrs' Day1 May: Labour Day18 July (2015) : Eid al-Fitr (end of...

Internet & Communications in Tunisia

Phone in Tunisia All towns and most villages have public telephones under the name of Publitel or Taxiphone. International calls are usually quite expensive (DT 1,000/minute for calls within the EU).t There are three GSM mobile operators, the private Tunisiana , the private Orange and the state-owned Tunisie Telecom...

Traditions & Customs in Tunisia

Tunisia is a Muslim country and dress code is important, especially for women. While a lot of skin (even topless) is tolerated on the beaches and in hotel complexes, a modest amount of exposed skin may be frowned upon outside these areas. Be aware that Tunisia becomes more conservative the...

Language & Phrasebook in Tunisia

The official language of Tunisia is Arabic, which is also one of the languages of commerce, the other being French, a heritage of Tunisia as a French protectorate until 1956.The dialect of Arabic spoken in Tunisia, similar to neighbouring Algeria and Morocco, is Maghreb Arabic, which is almost incomprehensible...

History Of Tunisia

Ancient Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region around 5000 BC and spread to the Maghreb by around 4000 BC. The farming communities of the humid coastal plains of Central Tunisia represent the ancestors of the present-day Berber tribes. In ancient times, it is believed that Africa...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Tunisia

Stay safe in Tunisia Violence Tunisia has recently experienced a revolution and is currently in a controversial transition phase. Although there is currently no large-scale violence, demonstrations do occur from time to time and are sometimes violent and/or brutally dispersed. Therefore, before travelling to Tunisia, check with your foreign office about...

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