The Federal Republic of Nigeria, colloquially known as Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic in West Africa that borders Benin to the west, Chad and Cameroon to the east, and Niger to the north. Its southern shore is on the Atlantic Ocean’s Gulf of Guinea. It is made up of 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, which is home to the capital, Abuja. Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Benin City, and Port Harcourt are among its biggest cities. Nigeria is officially a secular democratic republic.
Modern-day Over the millennia, Nigeria has been the location of countless kingdoms and tribal governments. The current state arose from British colonial control beginning in the nineteenth century and the 1914 merger of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate. The British established administrative and legal frameworks while exercising indirect authority via traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria established an officially independent nation in 1960, but it was engulfed in a civil war from 1967 to 1970. Since then, it has alternated between democratically elected civilian administrations and military dictatorships, until it attained sustained democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential elections seen as the first to be generally free and fair.
Nigeria is known as the “Giant of Africa” due to its enormous population and economy. Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa and the sixth most populous country in the world, with a population of roughly 184 million people. Nigeria has one of the world’s biggest youth populations. The country is regarded as a multinational state since it is home to over 500 ethnic groups, the three biggest of which are the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba; these ethnic groups speak over 500 distinct languages and are associated with a diverse range of cultures. English is the official language. Nigeria is generally divided in half by Christians, who dwell primarily in the south, and Muslims, who live mostly in the north. Religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those of the Igbo and Yoruba peoples, are practiced by a minority of the population.
Nigeria was the world’s 20th biggest economy in 2015, with a nominal GDP of more than $500 billion and a purchasing power parity of more than $1 trillion, respectively. In 2014, it surpassed South Africa to become Africa’s largest economy. Furthermore, the debt-to-GDP ratio is just 11%, which is 8% lower than the ratio in 2012. The World Bank considers Nigeria to be an emerging market; it has been characterized as a regional power on the African continent, a medium power in international affairs, and an emerging global power. Nigeria belongs to the MINT group of nations, which are commonly regarded as the world’s next “BRIC-like” economy. It is also one among the “Next Eleven” economies poised to become among the world’s largest. Among other international organizations, Nigeria is a founding member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Union, OPEC, and the United Nations.
During the 2014 Ebola outbreak, Nigeria was the first country to efficiently contain and eliminate the Ebola threat that was ravaging multiple other West African countries, as its unique method of contact tracing proved to be an efficient strategy eventually used by other countries, such as the U.s.a., when Ebola threats were discovered.
Boko Haram, an Islamist organisation that aims to destroy the secular form of government and install Sharia law throughout Nigeria, has been waging sectarian warfare in the country’s North East since 2002. In May 2014, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan said that Boko Haram assaults had killed at least 12,000 people and paralyzed 8,000 more. At the same time, Benin, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger joined Nigeria in a joint effort to battle Boko Haram in the aftermath of the kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls and the expansion of Boko Haram assaults to these countries.