Spanish (including its native variation, Equatoguinean Spanish) and French are the official languages. In 2010, Portuguese was considered for adoption as an official language, although it was not completely recognized at the time. Since 1844, Spanish has been the official language of the country, and it is used in education and government. It is spoken by 67.6% of Equatorial Guineans, particularly those in Malabo, the capital. (Constitutional Law No. 1/1998 January 21) recognizes Aboriginal languages as essential elements of “national culture.” Fang, Bube, Benga, Ndowe, Balengue, Bujeba, Bissio, Gumu, Pichinglis, Fa d’Ambô, and the almost extinct Baseke are among the indigenous languages. Bantu languages are spoken by the majority of African ethnic groupings.”
In Annobón Province, Malabo (the capital), and among certain speakers on Equatorial Guinea’s mainland, the Portuguese creole Fa d’Ambô is widely spoken. Many Bioko inhabitants can also communicate in Spanish, especially in the capital, as well as Pichinglis, an English-based creole. In Annobón, Spanish is not widely spoken. Spanish is utilized in administration and education. Local Catholics utilize noncreolized Portuguese as their liturgical language. The ethnic group of Annobonese attempted to join the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). In Annobón, the government funded a sociolinguistic research by the Instituto Internacional da Lngua Portuguesa (IILP). It found significant ties between the Portuguese creole communities of So Tomé and Prncipe, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau.
Because of historical and cultural connections, the legislature of Equatorial Guinea modified Article 4 of the Constitution in 2010 to make Portuguese the official language of the Republic. The government attempted to enhance communications, commerce, and bilateral ties with Portuguese-speaking nations via this initiative. Despite this, the government has failed to approve Portuguese’s formal status as an official language.
The administration suggested adopting Portuguese in order to join the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which would allow the nation to obtain greater access to numerous professional and academic exchange programs as well as ease citizen cross-border movement. Furthermore, the country has been warned that it must implement political changes that would allow for effective democracy and the protection of human rights. This legislation was debated in the national parliament in October 2011.
Equatorial Guinea’s foreign minister struck a deal with the IILP in February 2012 to promote Portuguese in the nation.
However, in July 2012, the CPLP denied Equatorial Guinea full membership for the second time, mainly due to the country’s continuing severe breaches of human rights. The government retaliated by recognizing political parties, announcing a moratorium on the death sentence, and launching a dialogue with all political groups. The IILP obtained government property in Bata and Malabo for the building of Portuguese language cultural institutions. Equatorial Guinea was accepted to the CPLP during its 10th summit in Dili in July 2014. The death penalty should be abolished, and Portuguese should be promoted as an official language, according to the approval.