Monday, January 17, 2022

History of Djibouti

AfricaDjiboutiHistory of Djibouti

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The region around Djibouti has been populated since the Neolithic period. Linguists believe that around this time period, the first Afroasiatic-speaking people migrated in the area from the family’s putative urheimat (“original homeland”) in the Nile Valley or the Near East. Others believe that the Afroasiatic language family arose in situ in the Horn, with people spreading from there.

At Asa Koma, an inland lake region on the Gobaad Plain, pottery dating back to the mid-second millennium has been discovered. The pottery from the site features punctate and incision geometric patterns that are comparable to the Sabir culture phase 1 ceramics from Ma’layba in Southern Arabia. Long-horned humpless cow bones were also found at Asa Koma, indicating that domesticated cattle existed about 3,500 years ago. At Dorra and Balho, there is additional rock art depicting antelopes and a giraffe.

A number of anthropomorphic and phallic stelae may also be found between Djibouti City and Loyada. The constructions are linked to rectangular tombs bordered by vertical slabs, which have also been discovered in central Ethiopia. The stelae in Djibouti-Loyada are of unknown antiquity, and some of them have a T-shaped sign.

Djibouti is thought to be the most probable site of the region known to the Ancient Egyptians as Punt (or Ta Netjeru, meaning “God’s Land”), along with northern Somalia, Eritrea, and Sudan’s Red Sea coast. The Land of Punt was originally mentioned in the 25th century BC. The Puntites were a people that had strong ties to Ancient Egypt under the reigns of Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty and Queen Hatshepsut of the Eighteenth Dynasty. King Parahu and Queen Ati governed the Land of Punt during the period, according to temple paintings at Deir el-Bahari.

The Somali and Afar ethnic groups in the area were among the first people on the continent to adopt Islam after trading with the neighboring Arabian Peninsula for more than 1,000 years.

In the Horn of Africa, the Ifat Sultanate was a medieval country. The Walashma dynasty founded it in 1285, and it was headquartered at Zeila. Ifat began operations in Djibouti and northern Somalia, then moved south to the Ahmar Mountains. In 1285, its Sultan Umar Walashma (or, according to another account, his son Ali) captured the Sultanate of Shewa. Sultan Umar’s military expedition, according to Taddesse Tamrat, was an attempt to unify Muslim holdings in the Horn, similar to Emperor Yekuno Amlak’s endeavor to unite Christian kingdoms in the highlands at the same time. These two states eventually clashed over Shewa and other southern regions. A long battle erupted, although the Muslim sultanates of the period were not well-coordinated. In 1332, Emperor Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia destroyed Ifat, and he retreated from Shewa.

The area north of the Gulf of Tadjoura was known as Obock from 1862 to 1894, and it was governed by Somali and Afar Sultans, local rulers with whom France negotiated several treaties between 1883 and 1887 to establish a presence in the region. Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French government in Djibouti in 1894, renaming the territory French Somaliland. It lasted from 1896 until 1967, when the Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas (TFAI) was established (“French Territory of the Afars and the Issas”).

Djibouti conducted a referendum in 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia’s independence in 1960, to determine whether to join the Somali Republic or stay with France. The referendum resulted in a yes vote from the large Afar ethnic community as well as resident Europeans, indicating that the country’s relationship with France should be maintained. Allegations of massive vote manipulation were also made. The bulk of those who voted no were Somalis who supported Mahmoud Harbi, the Vice President of the Government Council, in his proposal for an unified Somalia. Harbi died two years later in an aircraft accident.

A second referendum was conducted in 1967 to decide the future of the area. The preliminary findings indicated that the connection with France should be maintained, although with a looser grip. The vote was also split along ethnic lines, with the majority of resident Somalis voting for independence with the aim of ultimate unification with Somalia, while the Afars opted to stay with France. The referendum was once again plagued by allegations of vote manipulation by the French government. The former Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland) was renamed Territoire français des Afars et des Issas shortly after the vote.

A third referendum was held in 1977. Disengagement from France was approved by a landslide 98.8% of the voters, formally marking Djibouti’s independence. Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali politician who advocated for a yes vote in the 1958 referendum, became the country’s first president (1977–1999).

Djibouti joined the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), the Arab League, and the United Nations within its first year. The fledgling country was also a founding member of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, a regional development organization, in 1986.

Tensions over government representation between Djibouti’s governing People’s Rally for Progress (PRP) and the opposition Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) led to violent warfare in the early 1990s. In 2000, the stalemate was broken by a power-sharing deal.

How To Travel To Djibouti

By planeDjibouti-Ambouli International Airport (JIB) is the only airport that links Djibouti with Dubai. Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Puntland, Somaliland, Tanzania, Egypt, Madagascar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Yemen are among the destinations served. Flights to Paris are operated by Air France and Djibouti-based Daallo Airlines (D3), with...

How To Travel Around Djibouti

Taxis are accessible in Djibouti and from the airport to the town (look for a large billboard showing anticipated taxi rates as you leave the airport); also in Ali-Sabieh, Dikhil, Dorale, and Arta. After nightfall, fares may rise by 50%.Bicycling is an excellent mode of transportation in the tiny...

Visa & Passport Requirements for Djibouti

Most nationalities are needed to get visas. Travelers with French or Singaporean passports may get a one-month visa on arrival for 5,000 DJF. Transit visas are valid for ten days and are offered at the airport for 10.000 FDJ (about US$55) to citizens of the European Union, Scandinavian nations,...

Destinations in Djibouti

Cities in DjiboutiDjibouti - the capital and largest cityAli SabiehBalhoDikhilKhor AngarObockTadjouraYobokiOther destinations in DjiboutiOn the Ethiopian border, Lake Abbe is a lonely, boiling lake surrounded by limestone chimneys and a lunar-like environment that was utilized as the "Forbidden Zone" in Planet of the Apes.Africa's lowest point (157 meters...

Things To See in Djibouti

Lake Assal. Lake Assal is the world's third lowest point, at 150 meters below sea level. You'll need to rent a vehicle or contact a Djiboutian friend to take you there. Expect a bumpy ride: truck traffic between Djibouti and Ethiopia has wreaked havoc on the highways outside the city....

Money & Shopping in Djibouti

Khat is a leafy stimulant that is quite popular among the natives. The herb is flown in from Ethiopia every morning and arrives by truck in Djibouti's Central Market about 1 p.m. Although it is reasonably priced, the quality varies considerably, so buy with care. Khat is not permitted...

Food & Drinks in Djibouti

There are numerous restaurants in Djibouti, including tourist traps. Be prepared for sticker shock if you want to try western food. You and your wallet will both benefit from the experience if you are interested in excellent local food. The Ethiopian Community Center, for example, sells a broad range...

Language & Phrasebook in Djibouti

Djibouti is a country with several languages. The bulk of people in the area speak Somali (524,000 speakers) and Afar (306,000 speakers) as their primary languages. These are the Somali and Afar ethnic groups' mother languages, respectively. Both languages are part of the Afroasiatic language family. Djibouti has two...

Culture Of Djibouti

The hot and dry environment of Djibouti is reflected in its clothing. Men usually wear the macawiis, a traditional sarong-like fabric wrapped around the waist, while not clothed in Western clothes like as trousers and T-shirts. Many nomadic people wear a tobe, a loosely wrapped white cotton robe that...

Stay Safe & Healthy in Djibouti

Earthquakes and droughts are examples of natural dangers. Heavy rains and flash floods are caused by cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean on occasion.If traveling outside of the capital city, visitors should be wary of the danger of banditry.It's a good idea to get health insurance. For any medical...

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