François Bozizé suspended the constitution and appointed a new government comprised of the majority of opposition parties. The appointment of Abel Goumba as vice-president boosted the image of Bozizé’s new administration. Bozizé formed a broad-based National Transition Council to write a new constitution and declared his intention to resign and run for office once the new constitution was adopted.
The Central African Republic Bush War started in 2004 when anti-Bozizé groups took up weapons against his administration. Throughout May 2005, Bozizé won a presidential election that excluded Patassé, and combat between the government and the rebels continued in 2006. Bozizé’s administration sought French military assistance in November 2006 to help them resist insurgents who had seized control of cities in the country’s northern provinces. Though the agreement’s first public specifics focused on logistics and intelligence, French support ultimately included attacks by Mirage aircraft on rebel positions.
The Syrte Agreement, signed in February, and the Birao Peace Agreement, signed in April 2007, called for a cessation of hostilities, the billeting of FDPC fighters and their integration with FACA, the release of political prisoners, the integration of the FDPC into government, an amnesty for the UFDR, recognition as a political party, and the integration of its fighters into the national army. Several organizations fought on, but others signed on to the pact or similar accords with the government (e.g. UFR on 15 December 2008). The CPJP, the only significant organization that did not sign an agreement at the time, maintained its operations and signed a peace deal with the government on August 25, 2012.
Bozizé was re-elected in 2011 in an election largely seen as rigged.
Séléka, an alliance of rebel organizations, seized control of cities in the country’s northern and central regions in November 2012. These parties ultimately negotiated a peace agreement with Bozizé’s administration in January 2013, including a power-sharing government, but the agreement fell through, and the rebels took control of the capital in March 2013, forcing Bozizé to flee the country.
Michel Djotodia was elected president, and in May 2013, Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye sought a UN peacekeeping mission from the UN Security Council, and on May 31, former President Bozizé was charged for crimes against humanity and incitement to genocide.
During June–August 2013, the security situation did not improve, and there were reports of over 200,000 internally displaced people (IDPs), as well as human rights violations and fresh violence between Séléka and Bozizé supporters.
French President François Hollande has urged the United Nations Security Council and the African Union to step up efforts to stabilize the nation. The Séléka government was said to be fractured. Djotodia formally dissolved Seleka in September 2013, but many rebels refused to disarm and strayed farther from government authority.
The violence deteriorated towards the end of the year, prompting international concerns of “genocide,” and combat was mostly a result of retaliatory assaults on civilians by Seleka’s mainly Muslim soldiers and Christian militias known as “anti-balaka.”
Michael Djotodia and his prime minister, Nicolas Tiengaye, resigned on January 11, 2014, as part of an agreement reached at a regional conference in neighboring Chad. The National Transitional Council chose Catherine Samba-Panza as temporary president, and she took office on January 23. She became Central Africa’s first female president. Marie-Nolle Koyara became the first female defense minister since independence in January 2015.
On 18 February 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon requested that the UN Security Council quickly send 3,000 soldiers to the nation to fight what he characterized as intentional targeting and mass slaughter of innocent people. The secretary-general presented a six-point strategy, which included the deployment of 3,000 peacekeepers to supplement the 6,000 African Union soldiers and 2,000 French forces currently in the nation.
Following Congolese mediation efforts, Séléka and anti-balaka officials signed a ceasefire accord in Brazzaville on July 23, 2014.
On December 14, 2015, the Séléka rebel commander proclaimed the Republic of Logone independent.