Setswana is an adjective used to characterize the rich cultural traditions of the Batswana, whether they are members of the Tswana ethnic groups or all residents of Botswana. It refers to the language of the main people groups in Botswana.
Botswana music is mainly sung and performed, sometimes without percussion depending on the occasion; string instruments are also prominent. Setinkane (a Botswana version of the tiny piano), Segankure/Segaba (a Botswana version of the Chinese instrument Erhu), Moropa (Meropa -plural) (a Botswana equivalent of the many kinds of drums), and phala are among the instruments used in Botswana folk music (a Botswana version of a whistle used mostly during celebrations, which comes in a variety of forms). Botswana traditional musical instruments are not limited to strings and drums. Hands are also employed as musical instruments, either by clapping them together or against phathisi (goat skin wrapped inside out around the calf region; only males use it) to produce music and rhythm. For the past several decades, the guitar has been praised as a flexible music instrument for Tswana music since it has a string diversity that the Segaba instrument lacks. It is the outsider who has found a place in the culture. The dancing is the centerpiece of every celebration or event that expresses joy. This varies according to regime, age, gender, and group status, or if it’s a tribal activity, standing in the community. Fatshe leno la rona is the national anthem. Kgalemang Tumediso Motsete wrote and composed it, and it was approved upon independence in 1966.
Women in the northern Botswana communities of Etsha and Gumare are known for their expertise in making baskets out of Mokola Palm and indigenous colors. Big, lidded baskets for storage, large, open baskets for carrying things on the head or winnowing threshed grain, and smaller plates for winnowing pounded grain are the three kinds of baskets made. As these baskets are being manufactured for foreign markets, their artistry is gradually improving via color usage and better patterns.
Thamaga Pottery and Oodi Weavers are two more prominent creative groups in Botswana’s south-eastern region.
The earliest paintings from Botswana and South Africa show hunting, animal, and human images and were created by the Khoisan (!Kung San/Bushmen) about 20,000 years ago in the Kalahari desert.