Thursday, December 8, 2022

Botswana Travel Guide - Travel S Helper


travel guide

Botswana, also known as the Republic of Botswana (Tswana: Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The locals call themselves Batswana (singular: Motswana). Botswana, formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, chose its current name after achieving independence within the Commonwealth on September 30, 1966. It has maintained a strong history of robust representative democracy since then, with a continuous record of unbroken democratic elections.

Botswana is topographically flat, with the Kalahari Desert covering up to 70% of its area. It is bounded to the south and southeast by South Africa, to the west and north by Namibia, and to the northeast by Zimbabwe. Its northern boundary with Zambia, in Kazungula, is loosely defined and only a few hundred metres long.

Botswana, a mid-sized country of little more than 2 million inhabitants, is one of the world’s most sparsely inhabited countries. Gaborone, the capital and largest city, is home to around 10% of the population. Formerly one of the world’s poorest countries, with a GDP per capita of around US$70 per year in the late 1960s, Botswana has subsequently converted itself into one of the world’s fastest-growing economies. Mining, livestock, and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Botswana has one of the highest GDP (purchasing power parity) per capita rates in Africa, at over $18,825 per year in 2015. Its high gross national income (the fourth-highest in Africa, according to some estimates) provides the country with a moderate quality of life and the highest Human Development Index in continental Sub-Saharan Africa.

Botswana is a member of several organizations, including the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has taken a heavy toll on the country. Between 2005 and 2013, the death rate from AIDS or AIDS-related causes fell dramatically (57 percent), as did the incidence of new infections in children. Despite the effectiveness of programs to make medicines available to individuals affected and to educate the general public on how to prevent the spread of HIV AIDS, the number of people living with the disease increased from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013. Despite these reasons for optimism, Botswana has the third highest HIV AIDS prevalence rate in the world, according to 2014 data.

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Botswana - Info Card




Pula (BWP)

Time zone

UTC+2 (Central Africa Time)


581,730 km2 (224,610 sq mi)

Calling code


Official language

English, Setswana

Botswana - Introduction


Tswana are Botswana’s largest ethnic group, accounting for 79% of the population. The BaKalanga and San or AbaThwa, commonly known as Basarwa, are the two most populous minority ethnic groups. Bayei, Bambukushu, Basubia, Baherero, and Bakgalagadi are some of the other tribes. Furthermore, there are a limited number of Europeans and Indians, with both groups being approximately equal in size. Botswana’s Indian community is made up of numerous Indian-Africans who have moved from Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania, Mauritius, South Africa, and other countries, as well as first generation Indian immigrants. The white community, which accounts for about 3% of the population, speaks English and Afrikaans.

Because to Zimbabwe’s worsening economic circumstances, the number of Zimbabweans in Botswana has grown into the tens of thousands since 2000.

Fewer than 10,000 San people continue to live their original hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Since the mid-1990s, Botswana’s central government has been attempting to evict the San from their traditional grounds. In 2010, James Anaya, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, described land loss as a major contributor to many of the problems confronting Botswana’s indigenous people, citing the San’s eviction from the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) as an example. Among Anaya’s recommendations in a report to the United Nations Human Rights Council was that development programs should promote activities in harmony with indigenous communities such as the San and Bakgalagadi people, such as traditional hunting and gathering activities, in consultation with those communities.


Approximately 70% of the country’s people identify as Christians. The majority of Christians are Anglicans, Methodists, and members of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa. Lutherans, Baptists, Roman Catholics, Latter-day Saints (Mormons), the Dutch Reformed Church, Mennonites, Seventh-day Adventists, and Jehovah’s Witnesses all have congregations in the nation. A Lutheran History Centre is accessible to the public in Gaborone.

According to the 2001 census, the nation contains about 5,000 Muslims, the majority of whom are from South Asia, 3,000 Hindus, and 700 Baha’is. Approximately 20% of people do not practice any religion. In both rural and urban regions, religious services are widely attended.


Botswana is the world’s 48th-largest nation, with 581,730 km2 (224,607 sq mi). It is about the size of Madagascar or France. It is located between latitudes 17° and 27° South and longitudes 20° and 30° East.

The terrain is mostly flat, with gently undulating tableland. Botswana is dominated by the Kalahari Desert, which occupies up to 70% of the country’s geographical area. In the northwest lies the Okavango Delta, one of the world’s biggest inland deltas. In the north, there is the Makgadikgadi Pan, a huge salt pan.

The Limpopo River Basin, the largest landform in southern Africa, is partially situated in Botswana, with the basins of its tributaries, the Notwane, Bonwapitse, Mahalapswe, Lotsane, Motloutse, and Shashe, lying in the country’s east. The Gaborone Dam on the Notwane River supplies water to the capital. To the north, the Chobe River forms a border between Botswana and Namibia’s Zambezi Region. The Chobe River merges with the Zambezi River near Kazungula (meaning a small sausage tree, a point where Sebitwane and his Makololo tribe crossed the Zambezi into Zambia).


Botswana’s official languages are English and Tswana.

The language of commerce in Botswana is English, and the majority of people in metropolitan areas speak it; but, in more rural regions, many individuals, especially the older generations, do not speak English. Tswana is the main indigenous language and the first language of the vast majority of the people. Basic pleasantries and such are not difficult to learn, and utilizing them in conversation will make people extremely pleased.


Botswana offers a wide range of animal habitats. Aside from the delta and desert regions, there are grasslands and savannas, which are home to blue wildebeest, antelopes, and other animals and birds. Northern Botswana is home to one of the last major groups of the critically endangered African wild dog. Chobe National Park, located in the Chobe District, is home to the world’s biggest population of African elephants. The park encompasses about 11,000 km2 (4,247 sq mi) and is home to over 350 bird species.

Chobe National Park and the Moremi Game Reserve (both in the Okavango Delta) are popular tourist attractions. Other reserves include the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, which is situated in Ghanzi District in the Kalahari desert, and the Makgadikgadi Pans National Park and Nxai Pan National Park, all of which are located in Central District in the Makgadikgadi Pan. Mashatu Game Reserve is privately owned and is situated in eastern Botswana, where the Shashe and Limpopo rivers converge. Mokolodi Nature Reserve, located near Gaborone, is another privately owned reserve. There are also specialized sanctuaries, such as the Khama Rhino Sanctuary (for rhinoceros) and the Makgadikgadi Sanctuary (for elephants) (for flamingos). They are both in the Central District.


Botswana has had one of the world’s fastest per capita income growth rates since independence. Botswana has progressed from being one of the world’s poorest nations to a middle-income country. According to one assessment, it has Africa’s fourth highest gross national income at buying power parity, giving it a quality of life comparable to Mexico.

Botswana’s Ministry of Trade and Industry is in charge of encouraging business growth across the nation. From 1966 through 1999, economic growth averaged more than 9% each year, according to the International Monetary Fund. In comparison to other African nations, Botswana enjoys a high degree of economic freedom. Despite successive budget deficits in 2002 and 2003 and a small amount of foreign debt, the government has maintained a solid fiscal strategy. It has the highest sovereign credit rating in Africa and has accumulated foreign currency reserves (over $7 billion in 2005/2006) equivalent to almost two and a half years of current imports.

The country’s financial system is populated by a diverse range of financial institutions, with pension funds and commercial banks being the two most significant asset-size sectors. As a consequence of rising national resources and high interest rates, banks remain lucrative, well-capitalized, and liquid. Botswana’s central bank is the Bank of Botswana. The Botswana pula is the country’s currency.

Botswana’s competitive banking system is one of the most sophisticated in Africa. The financial industry, in general, adheres to worldwide norms in terms of openness of financial regulations and banking oversight, and it offers sufficient credit to businesses. The Capital Bank first opened its doors in 2008. As of August 2015, the nation has a dozen licensed banks. The government is engaged in banking via state-owned financial institutions and a specific financial incentives program aimed at elevating Botswana’s position as a financial center. Although the government offers subsidized loans, credit is distributed on market conditions. Non-bank financial institution reform has proceeded in recent years, most notably via the creation of a single financial regulatory body to offer more effective oversight. The government has removed exchange restrictions, leading in the development of new portfolio investment choices, and the Botswana Stock Exchange is expanding.

The constitution calls for an independent judiciary, which the government upholds in reality. The legal system is adequate for conducting safe business transactions, but a significant and increasing backlog of cases hinders speedy trials. The protection of intellectual property rights has greatly improved. In the 2014 International Property Rights Index, Botswana is placed second only to South Africa among Sub-Saharan African countries.

While its economy is largely open to international investment, Botswana maintains certain industries for its own people. Increased foreign investment is important in the privatization of state-owned businesses. Investment laws are clear, and bureaucratic processes are simplified and open, albeit a little sluggish. Profits and dividends, debt payments, capital gains, returns on intellectual property, royalties, franchise fees, and service fees may all be repatriated without restriction.

South Africa supplies Botswana with refined petroleum products and electricity. There is some coal-fired power generation in the United States.

How To Travel To Botswana

Get In – By plane

Sir Seretse Khama Airport in Gaborone is Botswana’s major airport. International flights to Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia, Kenya, and Ethiopia are available. Maun’s airport is also accessible through Johannesburg, Cape Town, or Gaborone, as well as once a day (in summer 2009) from Windhoek, Namibia. The distance between Gaborone to Maun is about 1,000 kilometers. Maun is a popular tourist destination.

Airlines that fly to Gaborone are.

  • Air Botswana. Harare, Victoria Falls, Lusaka, Johannesburg, Cape Town.
  • Airlink. Johannesburg.
  • Ethiopian airlines. via Addis Ababa. to Europe, Asia, Africa.
  • Kenya airways. Via Nairobi to Europe. Asia, Africa.
  • TAAG Angola airlines. Luanda.
  • South African express. Johannesburg.

Get In – By car

Botswana has numerous road entrance points: Gaborone in the south, which provides access from Johannesburg; Namibia in the west; Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in the north; and Francistown in the east, which provides access from Harare. All highways have excellent access, and the major roads in Botswana are paved and well maintained.

The Kopfontein/Tlokweng border crossing is perhaps the busiest from South Africa, since it is just a few minutes from Botswana’s capital. As a consequence, it is open for an extended length of time and sees a high volume of trucks.

Coming from Namibia, you may take the Trans-Kalahari Highway north to Maun or south to Lobatse.

Get In – By international bus

A six-hour bus ride from Johannesburg to Gaborone is available on a regular basis. Intercape Mainliner is one of the bus companies that travels from Gaborone to Johannesburg.

There are other buses that go from Gaborone to Zimbabwe. and from Gaborone to Namibia’s Windhoek.

  • Monnakgotla travel have buses two times a week from Gaborone to Windhoek Namibia.
  • Metrolyn bus lines have buses from Gaborone to Harare Zimbabwe.
  • T J Motlogelwa Expess have buses from Gaborone to Johannesburg two times per day.

Get In – By ferry

From Kazungula in Zambia, you may take a ferry over the Zambezi River to the town of the same name in Botswana.

How To Travel Around Botswana

There are very few locals who remember street names and addresses, and you will almost certainly need to obtain instructions in terms of landmarks. Botswana has a postal delivery system to addresses (only to centralized mail collection locations), thus even if streets are well-marked, people may be unfamiliar with the names.

You can travel everywhere in Botswana using a mix of buses and combies (minivans), but public transportation is sparse outside of major towns and routes, thus hitchhiking is common and extremely simple. However, hitchhiking should be done only in dire situations, since Botswana driving is often unpredictable, and having a stranger take you someplace may be a terrifying experience. It is best to arrive at the bus terminal early since the buses tend to fill up fast, and it is not unusual to spend several hours standing in the aisle waiting for a seat to open up (remember to bring water, as the buses are often not air conditioned).

Get around – By car

The roads are paved and well kept, so driving is not a problem, as long as one keeps an eye out for the cows, donkeys, and goats that spend a lot of time in the center of the road.

The Trans-Kalahari Highway is an ancient livestock road that has been paved and is readily drivable with a two-wheel drive vehicle. It connects Windhoek, Namibia, to Gaborone, Botswana, and stretches from Lobatse to Ghanzi in Botswana. It’s a long and boring journey, but you get a good sense of the Kalahari Desert. Fuel is accessible in Kang at the Kang Ultra Shop, which also has a decent variety of food, overnight cabins, and cheap camping.

Get around – By bus

Botswana has a plethora of bus companies. Seabelo is one of the largest. You may take a bus from Gaborone to any larger city in Botswana.

Get around – By train

All trains in Botswana are operated by Botswana Railways. The main line connects Lobatse, near the South African border, to Francistown, near the Zimbabwean border, through Gaborone. Train service was restored in 2016 after being discontinued in 2009.

Destinations in Botswana

Regions in Botswana

The Kalahari Desert and its surroundings are sparsely inhabited.

The northern portion of the nation, which includes the Okavango Delta and excellent wildlife parks such as Chobe National Park and Moremi National Park.

Gaborone’s capital and the majority of the country’s population are located here.

Cities in Botswana

  • Gaborone or Gabs is a neat and tidy little capital with rapidly growing shantytowns on the periphery
  • Francistown
  • Ghanzi
  • Kasane
  • Maun
  • Mogapi
  • Nata
  • Palapye
  • Serowe

Other destinations in Botswana

  • Okavango Delta – A geological feature created by a river (the Okavango) emptying into the Kalahari desert rather than the ocean. Moremi National Park encompasses a portion of the Delta.
  • Central Kalahari Game Reserve
  • Chobe National Park – Chobe National Park is a wonderful location to view animals and a good starting point for a trip to Victoria Falls.
  • Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park
  • Nxai Pan National Park
  • Northern Tuli Game Reserve – Northern Tuli Game Reserve is a one-of-a-kind African destination where nature and culture collide in magnificent animals, breathtaking landscape, and intriguing history.

Things To See in Botswana

Botswana’s primary attraction is its wildlife. Nearly one-fifth of the nation is made up of wildlife parks. Lions, cheetahs, crocodiles, hippos, elephants, antelope, wild dogs, and hundreds of bird species may be found in these parks. Visitors may go on safaris and stay in lodges ranging from low-cost dormitories with tour buses to $1,000+/night luxury lodges with your own maid and driver.

The Okavango Delta, where the Okavango River expands into the world’s biggest inland delta, is one of southern Africa’s most impressive—and popular—wildlife attractions. The wetlands and water canals in the midst of the dry Kalahari attract animals from hundreds of kilometers away and quadruple in size (to 100 000 km2) during floods in July and August. The nearby Chobe National Park has a huge elephant population, and it’s also possible to see many of Africa’s well-known animals, including zebras and lions. Year-round, the stark salt pans of Makgadikgadi Pans National Park attract a great number and diversity of birds. Nxai Pan National Park, Mokolodi Nature Reserve, and Gemsbok National Park are all excellent wildlife reserves.

Unfortunately, the majority of Botswana’s native tribes simply dress in traditional attire and conduct ceremonies for visitors. Nonetheless, for cultural vultures, the settlements of D’Kar and Xai-Xai have a lot to offer, such as arts and crafts and the chance to engage in different ceremonies. Tsodilo Hills has one of the most extensive collections of rock art on the continent.

Food & Drinks in Botswana

Food in Botswana

Botswana’s cuisine is distinct, although it has certain features with other Southern African cuisines. Botswana cuisine includes Pap, Samp, Vetkoek, and Mopane worms.

Seswaa, a meat dish consisting of beef, goat, or lamb meat, is a Botswana specialty. In general, the fatty meat is cooked until soft in any saucepan with “just enough salt,” then shredded or crushed. It is often served with porridge made from pap (maize meal) or sorghum meal.

Drinks in Botswana

Many soft drinks and alcoholic beverages are manufactured in Botswana, including Fanta and Coca-Cola. Castle and Lion beers are popular in the area. Madila (sour milk) is made by fermenting milk and is consumed on its own or with cereal. Ginger beer is a popular non-alcoholic home-made beverage.

Money & Shopping in Botswana

The pula (ISO 4217 code: BWP) is Botswana’s currency, which is split into 100 thebe. In Setswana, pula literally means “rain” (rain is very scarce in Botswana – home to much of the Kalahari Desert – and therefore valuable and a “blessing”). The word thebe means “shield.”

Banknotes in BWP10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 denominations are in circulation, and the pula is one of Africa’s strongest and most stable currencies.

Festivals & Holidays in Botswana

Public Holidays

The public holidays in Botswana are:

  • 1 January. New Year’s Day 
  • Easter weekend. (“Good Friday”, “Easter Saturday”, “Easter Sunday” and “Easter Monday”): a four day long weekend in March or April set according to the Western Christian dates.
  • 1 May. Workers Day 
  • 1 July. Sir Seretse Khama Day 
  • Mid July. President’s Day 
  • 31 September. Botswana Day 
  • 25 December. Christmas Day 
  • 26 December. Day of Goodwill 

The first Monday after Christmas is also a Public Holiday.

Culture Of Botswana

Setswana is an adjective used to characterize the rich cultural traditions of the Batswana, whether they are members of the Tswana ethnic groups or all residents of Botswana. It refers to the language of the main people groups in Botswana.


Botswana music is mainly sung and performed, sometimes without percussion depending on the occasion; string instruments are also prominent. Setinkane (a Botswana version of the tiny piano), Segankure/Segaba (a Botswana version of the Chinese instrument Erhu), Moropa (Meropa -plural) (a Botswana equivalent of the many kinds of drums), and phala are among the instruments used in Botswana folk music (a Botswana version of a whistle used mostly during celebrations, which comes in a variety of forms).

Botswana traditional musical instruments are not limited to strings and drums. Hands are also employed as musical instruments, either by clapping them together or against phathisi (goat skin wrapped inside out around the calf region; only males use it) to produce music and rhythm. For the past several decades, the guitar has been praised as a flexible music instrument for Tswana music since it has a string diversity that the Segaba instrument lacks. It is the outsider who has found a place in the culture. The dancing is the centerpiece of every celebration or event that expresses joy. This varies according to regime, age, gender, and group status, or if it’s a tribal activity, standing in the community. Fatshe leno la rona is the national anthem. Kgalemang Tumediso Motsete wrote and composed it, and it was approved upon independence in 1966.

Visual arts

Women in the northern Botswana communities of Etsha and Gumare are known for their expertise in making baskets out of Mokola Palm and indigenous colors. Big, lidded baskets for storage, large, open baskets for carrying things on the head or winnowing threshed grain, and smaller plates for winnowing pounded grain are the three kinds of baskets made. As these baskets are being manufactured for foreign markets, their artistry is gradually improving via color usage and better patterns.

Thamaga Pottery and Oodi Weavers are two more prominent creative groups in Botswana’s south-eastern region.

The earliest paintings from Botswana and South Africa show hunting, animal, and human images and were created by the Khoisan (!Kung San/Bushmen) about 20,000 years ago in the Kalahari desert.

History Of Botswana

Early history

Botswana’s history begins more than 100,000 years ago, when the first people arrived in the area. The Bushmen (San) and Khoi peoples were the indigenous inhabitants of southern Africa. Both spoke Khoisan and lived as hunter-gatherers. Large chiefdoms arose about a thousand years ago, which were subsequently overshadowed by the Great Zimbabwe empire, which extended into eastern Botswana. Around 1300 CE, peoples in present-day Transvaal started to form three major linguistic and political groups, including the Batswana.

The Batswana (plural of “Motswana”), a word used to refer to all Botswanans, are the country’s largest ethnic group today. Prior to European contact, the Batswana were tribally ruled herders and farmers. New tribes were formed when groups split off and migrated to new territory. Prior to the colonial era, some human development happened.

Contacts with Europeans

The slave and ivory markets were growing in the 1700s. Shaka, the Zulu Empire’s ruler, mobilized an army to oppose these demands. Conquered tribes advanced northwest into Botswana, killing everything in their route. Tribes started to barter ivory and skins for firearms with European merchants who had begun to enter the interior in their attempts to re-establish themselves towards the end of this era. Christian missionaries were also brought from Europe to the interior, sometimes at the request of tribal leaders who desired firearms and understood that the presence of missionaries encouraged merchants. By 1880, every large hamlet had a missionary on staff, and their impact was lasting. Botswana’s Christianization was completed under the reign of King Khama III (reigned 1875–1923). There were eight major tribes (or chiefdoms), the most powerful of which was the Bangwaketse.

Hostilities erupted in the late nineteenth century between Botswana’s Tswana people and Ndebele tribes making inroads into the region from the north-east. Tensions also rose with the arrival of Dutch Boer immigrants from the Transvaal to the east. On March 31, 1885, the British Government placed Bechuanaland under its protection after pleas from Batswana chiefs Khama III, Bathoen, and Sebele. The northern territory, known as the Bechuanaland Protectorate, is now modern-day Botswana, while the southern region, known as British Bechuanaland, became part of the Cape Colony and is today part of South Africa’s northwest province. Today, the bulk of Setswana-speaking people reside in South Africa.

The Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland (now Lesotho), and Swaziland (the High Commission Territories) were not included when the Union of South Africa was established in 1910 out of the region’s major British possessions, although provision was made for their eventual inclusion. However, the UK started to consult their people, and although successive South African governments tried to have the territories transferred, the UK continued delaying; as a result, it never happened. The election of the Nationalist government in 1948, which established apartheid, and South Africa’s departure from the Commonwealth in 1961 effectively eliminated any possibility of the territories being included into South Africa.

The 1920 creation of two advisory bodies to represent both Africans and Europeans arose from the growth of British central power and the evolution of tribal governance. The African Council was made up of the leaders of the eight Tswana tribes as well as some elected members. In 1934, proclamations established tribal rule and authority. A European-African advising council was created in 1951, and a consultative legislative council was established in 1961 under the constitution.


The United Kingdom approved plans for democratic self-government in Botswana in June 1964. In 1965, the seat of government was relocated from Mafikeng, South Africa, to the newly formed Gaborone, which is close to Botswana’s border with South Africa. The 1965 constitution resulted in the first general elections and, on September 30, 1966, independence. Seretse Khama, a pioneer in the independence struggle and the rightful contender to the Ngwato chiefship, was chosen as the country’s first President and was re-elected twice.

Quett Masire, the current Vice-President, was elected in his own right in 1984 and re-elected in 1989 and 1994. Masire stepped down as president in 1998, and was replaced by Festus Mogae, who was elected in his own right in 1999 and re-elected in 2004. The presidency was handed on to Ian Khama (son of the first President) in 2008, who had been serving as Mogae’s Vice-President since quitting as Commander of the Botswana Defence Force in 1998 to take up this civilian post.

The International Court of Justice decided in December 1999 that Kasikili Island belonged to Botswana, resolving a long-running dispute over the northern boundary with Namibia’s Caprivi Strip.

Stay Safe & Healthy in Botswana

Stay Safe in Botswana

Botswana’s people are extremely kind, and the crime rate is minimal. On this front, there isn’t anything to be concerned about. Nonetheless, crime has been on the increase in recent years, so be cautious of your surroundings at all times. In rural regions, basic common sense will keep you safe from dangerous animals. Botswana is one of Africa’s safest nations, with no civil conflict, less corruption, greater human rights, and no natural catastrophes such as earthquakes or tsunamis.


Drug trafficking carries a mandatory death penalty. This is essential to understand because if you need to bring prescription medicines into Botswana, you will be required to produce a prescription for each pill. Failure to do so will result in the medicine being classed as a drug and, if unreported, death sentence.

Stay Healthy in Botswana

Botswana’s HIV infection rate, estimated at 24.1 percent, is the world’s second highest. Maintain consistent universal precautions while dealing with any body fluid and be mindful of the high risk of infection. Take the necessary safeguards. Wear rubber gloves while treating someone else’s cut, even if it’s a kid, and never have unprotected sex. Before moving forward in a serious relationship, consider getting an HIV test for both of you.

The northern portion of Botswana, including Chobe National Park and the Okavango Delta, is a malaria zone, therefore appropriate measures should be taken. Before traveling to these regions, get medical advice; vaccinations such as typhoid and hepatitis A+B (if not already immune) are generally advised. Oral vaccines are also recommended for diarrhea and cholera prevention.

The water in metropolitan areas is chlorinated, and the locals drink it from the tap. Short-term tourists, however, should consume bottled water to prevent traveler’s diarrhea. Water outside of metropolitan areas is polluted and should not be used for drinking, making ice cubes, brushing teeth, or eating washed unpeeled fruits and vegetables.



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